Wireless Networks

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 1279–1295 | Cite as

Quality of service differentiation in heterogeneous CDMA networks: a mathematical modelling approach

  • Vassilios G. Vassilakis
  • Ioannis D. Moscholios
  • Michael D. Logothetis


Next-generation cellular networks are expected to enable the coexistence of macro and small cells, and to support differentiated quality-of-service (QoS) of mobile applications. Under such conditions in the cell, due to a wide range of supported services and high dependencies on efficient vertical and horizontal handovers, appropriate management of handover traffic is very crucial. Furthermore, new emerging technologies, such as cloud radio access networks (C-RAN) and self-organizing networks (SON), provide good implementation and deployment opportunities for novel functions and services. We design a multi-threshold teletraffic model for heterogeneous code division multiple access (CDMA) networks that enable QoS differentiation of handover traffic when elastic and adaptive services are present. Facilitated by this model, it is possible to calculate important performance metrics for handover and new calls, such as call blocking probabilities, throughput, and radio resource utilization. This can be achieved by modelling the cellular CDMA system as a continuous-time Markov chain. After that, the determination of state probabilities in the cellular system can be performed via a recursive and efficient formula. We present the applicability framework for our proposed approach, that takes into account advances in C-RAN and SON technologies. We also evaluate the accuracy of our model using simulations and find it very satisfactory. Furthermore, experiments on commodity hardware show algorithm running times in the order of few hundreds of milliseconds, which makes it highly applicable for accurate cellular network dimensioning and radio resource management.


Quality of service Handover Cdma Cloud radio access network 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vassilios G. Vassilakis
    • 1
  • Ioannis D. Moscholios
    • 2
  • Michael D. Logothetis
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Computing and EngineeringUniversity of West LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Informatics and TelecommunicationsUniversity of PeloponneseTripolisGreece
  3. 3.WCL, Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

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