The effects of atmospheric precipitation on heavy metal accumulation and deactivation amendment in wheat surrounding a lead smelter were studied. The total precipitation amounts of Cd, Pb, and As in an in situ test were noticeably more than their amounts in an off-site test over the entire growing period of wheat. In the same soil-wheat system, the heavy metal concentrations of wheat leaves in the off-site test were significantly lower than those in the in situ test near the lead smelter. Specifically, Cd, Pb, and As were 53.1%, 89.2%, and 85.7% less, without the amendment of the heavy metal deactivator (HMD). Meanwhile, the deactivation effect improved in the off-site test, resulting in the respective Cd, Pb, and As decreases of 6.0%, 46.3%, and 22.1% more, compared with it in the in situ test. The changes in heavy metal concentrations of wheat grains were consistent with those of wheat leaves. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the off-site test were 10.7% and 91.0% lower than the in situ values, without the amendment of the HMD, and deactivation effect also had enhanced, with Cd and Pb decreasing by 1.3% and 9.6% more. The heavy metal concentrations of wheat leaves in the indoor pot test were significantly lower than those in the in situ test, with Cd, Pb, and As 74.4%–87.3%, 95.6%–97.0%, and 86.2%–87.4% less, respectively. After repeated leaf-washing treatment, the effect of HMD amendment was further enhanced, with Cd, Pb, and As decreasing by 30.8%, 33.6%, and 34.7%, respectively. All tests conducted indicate atmospheric precipitation is the controlling pollution source. Deactivation amendment can reduce the heavy metal concentrations of wheat leaves and grains, even in the presence of precipitation contamination, although the presence of precipitation reduces the effect of HMD amendment. Repeated leaf-washing can enhance the effect of HMD amendment and decrease the accumulation of heavy metals from atmospheric precipitation in wheat.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Cao, X., Tan, C., Wu, L., Luo, Y., He, Q., Liang, Y., et al. (2020). Atmospheric deposition of cadmium in an urbanized region and the effect of simulated wet precipitation on the uptake performance of rice. Science of the Total Environment, 700, 134513.
Castanheiro, A., Hofman, J., Nuyts, G., Joosen, S., Spassov, S., Blust, R., et al. (2020). Leaf accumulation of atmospheric dust: Biomagnetic, morphological and elemental evaluation using SEM. ED-XRF and HR-ICP-MS. Atmospheric Environment, 221, 117082.
Cui, J., Wang, W., Peng, Y., Zhou, F., He, D., Wang, J., et al. (2019). Effects of simulated Cd deposition on soil Cd availability, microbial response, and crop Cd uptake in the passivation-remediation process of Cd-contaminated purple soil. Science of the Total Environment, 683.
Derry, L. A., & Chadwick, O. A. (2007). Contributions from Earth’s atmosphere to soil. Elements, 3, 333–338.
Doabi, S., Karami, M., Afyuni, M., & Yeganeh, M. (2018). Pollution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural soil, atmospheric dust and major food crops in Kermanshah province, Iran. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 163, 153–164.
Edelstein, M., & Ben-Hur, M. (2018). Heavy metals and metalloids: Sources, risks and strategies to reduce their accumulation in horticultural crops. Scientia Horticulturae, 234, 431–444.
Feng, W., Guo, Z., Peng, C., Xiao, X., Shi, L., Zeng, P., et al. (2019). Atmospheric bulk deposition of heavy metal(loid)s in central south China: Fluxes, influencing factors and implication for paddy soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 371, 634–642.
Gelly, R., Fekiacova, Z., Guihou, A., Doelsch, E., Deschamps, P., & Keller, C. (2019). Lead, zinc, and copper redistributions in soils along a deposition gradient from emissions of a Pb-Ag smelter decommissioned 100 years ago. Science of the Total Environment, 665.
Gimeno-García E, Andreu V, Boluda R. Heavy metals incidence in the application of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides to rice farming soils. Environmental Pollution 1996; 92: 0–25.
Guo, G., Zhou, Q., & Ma, L. Q. (2006). Availability and assessment of fixing additives for the in situ remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils: A review. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, 116, 513–528.
Hovmand, M. F., Kemp, K., Kystol, J., Johnsen, I., Riis-Nielsen, T., & Pacyna, J. M. (2008). Atmospheric heavy metal deposition accumulated in rural forest soils of southern Scandinavia. Environmental Pollution, 155, 537–541.
Kachenko, A. G., & Singh, B. (2006). Heavy metals contamination in vegetables grown in urban and metal smelter contaminated sites in Australia. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 169, 101–123.
Li, Y., Wang, H., Wang, H., Yin, F., Yang, X., & Hu, Y. (2014). Heavy metal pollution in vegetables grown in the vicinity of a multi-metal mining area in Gejiu, China: Total concentrations, speciation analysis, and health risk. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 12569–12582.
Li, X., Jiao, W., Xiao, R., Chen, W., & Chang, A. (2015). Soil pollution and site remediation policies in China: A review. Environmental Reviews, 23, 263–274.
Liu, W., Zhao, J., Ouyang, Z., Söderlund, L., & Liu, G. (2005). Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environment International, 31.
Liu, C., Huang, Y., Lei, M., Hao, X., Li, X., Tie, B., et al. (2012). Soil contamination and assessment of heavy metals of Xiangjiang River basin. Chinese Journal of Environmental Science, 33, 260–265 (in Chinese).
Liu, H., Zhou, J., Li, M., Hu, Y., Liu, X., & Zhou, J. (2019). Study of the bioavailability of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition on the soil-pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) system. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 362.
Lu, Y., & Qiu, K. (2014). The quantum of Pb, Cd and As in the ambient air of Lead smelting factorys and their effects on soils. The Administration and Technique of Environmental Monitoring, 26, 60–63 (in Chinese).
Lv, J., Liu, Y., Zhang, Z., & Dai, J. (2013). Factorial kriging and stepwise regression approach to identify environmental factors influencing spatial multi-scale variability of heavy metals in soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 261, 387–397.
Ma, C., Liu, F., Su, P., & Zhao, J. (2018). Chemical speciation and risk assessment of Pb in different Pb sedimentation area. Ecology and Environmental Science, 27, 1466–1471.
Meng, W., Wang, Z., Hu, B., Wang, Z., Li, H., & Goodman, R. C. (2016). Heavy metals in soil and plants after long-term sewage irrigation at Tianjin China: A case study assessment. Agricultural Water Management, 171.
Nickel, S., Hertel, A., Pesch, R., Schröder, W., Steinnes, E., & Uggerud, H. T. (2015). Correlating concentrations of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition with respective accumulation in moss and natural surface soil for ecological land classes in Norway between 1990 and 2010. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 8488–8498.
Pacyna, J. M., Pacyna, E. G., & Aas, W. (2009). Changes of emissions and atmospheric deposition of mercury, lead, and cadmium. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 117–127.
Qian, T., Wu, P., Qin, Q., Huang, Y., Wang, Y., & Zhou, D. (2018). Screening of wheat straw biochars for the remediation of soils polluted with Zn (II) and Cd (II). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 362.
Shen, Z., Jin, F., O’Connor, D., & Hou, D. (2019a) Solidification/stabilization for soil remediation: An old technology with new vitality. Environmental Science & Technology 53, 11615–11617.
Shen, Z., Hou, D., Jin, F., Shi, J., Fan, X., Tsang, D., et al. (2019b). Effect of production temperature on lead removal mechanisms by rice straw biochars. Science of the Total Environment, 655, 751–758.
Shi R, Zheng X, Gong Q, Han J, Zhao Y, Zhou Q, et al. Heavy metal pollution source analysis and control strategy in soil of agricultural producing area the administration and technique of environmental monitoring 2017; 29: 9–13. (in Chinese).
Song, L., Han, Z., Lv, X., Zhang, W., Li, X., & Wang, L. (2018). Remediation of Cd-contaminated cropland soil in northen China via the amendment of modified biofuel ash. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 37, 1484–1494 (in Chinese).
Song, L., Han, Z., Zhang, W., Ma, L., Wang, L., Li, X., et al. (2019). Remediation of Cd-contaminated cropland soil in South China with the amendment of modified biofuel ash and its long-term effects. China Environmental Science, 39, 226–234 (in Chinese).
Sun, H., Zhu, L., & Zhou, D. (2017). POLSOIL: Research on soil pollution in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 1–3.
Wang X, Liu W, Li Z, Teng Y, Christie P, Luo Y. Effects of long-term fertilizer applications on peanut yield and quality and on plant and soil heavy metal accumulation. Pedosphere 2017.
Wang, K., Qiao, Y., Zhang, H., Yue, S., & Liu, L. (2018). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in earthworms from field contaminated soil in a subtropical area of China. Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety, 148, 876–883.
Wang, J., Su, J., Li, Z., Liu, B., Cheng, G., Jiang, Y., et al. (2019a). Source apportionment of heavy metal and their health risks in soil-dustfall-plant system nearby a typical non-ferrous metal mining area of Tongling, Eastern China. Environmental Pollution, 254.
Wang, P., Sun, Z., Hu, Y., & Cheng, H. (2019b). Leaching of heavy metals from abandoned mine tailings brought by precipitation and the associated environmental impact. Science of the Total Environment, 695.
Xie, Y., Ji, X., Tian, F., Wu, J., Liu, Z., & Guan, D. (2017). Effect of passivator on Cd uptaking of rice in different Cd pollution characteristics paddy soils. Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering, 11, 1242–1250 (in Chinese).
Xu, X., Zhao, Y., Zhao, X., Wang, Y., & Deng, W. (2014). Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 108.
Yang, Q., Li, Z., Lu, X., Duan, Q., Huang, L., & Bi, J. (2018). A review of soil heavy metal pollution from industrial and agricultural regions in China: Pollution and risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 642, 690–700.
Yuankai, Z., Zhijiang, H., Hongchen, W., Lu, Q., Guohua, L., & Xiaojun, Z. (2015). Applications of hollow nanomaterials in environmental remediation and monitoring: A review. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 9, 770–783.
Zhai, X., Li, Z., & Huang, B. (2018). Remediation of multiple heavy metal-contaminated soil through the combination of soil washing and in situ immobilization. Science of the Total Environment, 635, 92–99.
Zhao, F., Ma, Y., Zhu, Y., Tang, Z., & McGrath, S. (2015). Soil contamination in China: Current status and mitigation strategies. Environmental Science & Technology, 49, 750–759.
Zhou, Y., Liu, X., & Wang, J. (2019). Characterization of microplastics and the association of heavy metals with microplastics in suburban soil of central China. Science of the Total Environment, 694, 133798.
This research is supported by the operation cost of key Laboratory of groundwater remediation funded by Hebei science and technology department (YX201801), Guangxi Key Research & Development Project (GuiKeAB18126062), China Geological Survey basic research fund (YYWF201629, SK201901), and Hebei Province Key Research & Development Project (18274232).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Song, L., Han, Z., Li, Z. et al. Effects of Atmospheric Precipitation on Heavy Metal Accumulation and Deactivation Amendment in Wheat Around a Lead Smelter. Water Air Soil Pollut 231, 327 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-020-04703-x
- Atmospheric precipitation
- Heavy metal
- Lead smelter