Identification of Pesticide Residues and Prediction of Their Fate in Agricultural Soil

Abstract

Fourteen pesticides were screened and determined through quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction process combined with GC-MS/MS in arid agriculture soil. The aims of the current investigation were to account the occurrence of organochlorine (OCP) and organophosphates (OPP) pesticide residues as well as other groups of pyrethroids (PYRs), carbamates, and biopesticides using a combined of QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS techniques in agriculture soils at Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia, and to investigate correlation between pesticide losses in soils and some physicochemical characteristics of pesticides including an octanol-water coefficient partition (Kow) and the vapor pressure (Vp). Prediction of pesticide fate by considering both pesticide and soil physio-chemical properties will facilitate the management of pesticide application and minimize the hazards of environmental pollution. The fate of pesticide residue in soils is generally controlled by soil/air exchange, water interaction, and biodegradation. The results indicated that 14 pesticide residues were measured in collected samples of various soils, spinosad, chlorpyrifos methyl, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, lindane (γ-HCH), permethrin, and methomyl which were the most abundant sources of contamination in the studied region. p,p-DDT, o,p-DDT, bifenthion, β-cyfluthrin, and methidathion were less commonly detected. Single parameter least squares regression equations (sp-LSRE) for Vp and Kow against the loss of each pesticide residue showed a significant change in concentration levels (p < 0.05) between the two seasons. The results showed that vapor pressure and octanol-water partition coefficient data are not enough to model pesticide residue losses in arid low organic carbon soil. More soil-related data is needed to describe the dissipation mechanisms of these pesticide residues in the region.

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Acknowledgments

This article was supported by Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, research group no. RGP-1440-050.

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Correspondence to Mohamed H. EL-Saeid.

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EL-Saeid, M.H., Alghamdi, A.G. Identification of Pesticide Residues and Prediction of Their Fate in Agricultural Soil. Water Air Soil Pollut 231, 284 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-020-04619-6

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Keywords

  • Pesticides
  • Residues
  • QuEChERS
  • GC-MS/MS
  • Vapor pressure
  • Partition coefficient
  • Fate
  • Water coefficient