The growing population has resulted in the need for new alternatives that guarantee water supply to the population. Among the alternatives, there is the individual system for capturing and utilizing rainwater. The objective of this article was to test a municipal policy that makes it mandatory to implement the system and to attest how much it can optimize the current public water supply system through the construction of a simulation model. The simulation considered the policy implementation in one city, and the analysis of the results showed the effectiveness of the policy, which can optimize an average of 114,275.00 m3 in 2030, with demand reduction. However, it was verified that the isolated initiative is not sufficient to solve the problem of supply and demand. There is a need to expand the implementation of the policy to other cities supplied by the studied macro public system. Also, if the current management practices remain, the projection is that the current system will not guarantee supply for the coming years, mainly due to the strong impact of tourism on demand, needing new sources of supply, techniques and management strategies.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
All data are openly available, and their sources were presented in this paper.
ABNT Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (2007) NBR 15527 Rainwater – Catchment of roofs in urban areas for non-potable purposes – Requirements
Alcalá FJ, Martínez-Valderrama J, Robles-Marín, Guerrera F, Martín-Martín M, Raffaelli G, de León JT, Asebriy L (2015) A hydrological–economic model for sustainable groundwater use in sparse-data drylands: application to the Amtoudi Oasis in southern Morocco, northern Sahara. Sci Total Environ 537:309–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.062
ANA Agência Nacional de Águas (2017) Uso da água: outros usos. http://www3.ana.gov.br/portal/ANA/usos-da-agua/outros-usos. Accessed 12 Dec 2017
ANA Agência Nacional de Águas (2020) Hidroweb. http://www.snirh.gov.br/hidroweb/apresentacao. Accessed 2 May 2020
Baki S, Rozos E, Makropoulos C (2018) Designing water demand management schemes using a socio-technical modelling approach. Sci Total Environ 622:1590–1602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.041
Barlas Y (1996) Formal aspects of model validity and validation in system dynamics. Syst Dynam Rev 12(3):183–210. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1727(199623)12:3<183::AID-SDR103>3.0.CO;2-4
Bashar MZI, Karim MR, Imteaz MA (2018) Reliability and economic analysis of urban rainwater harvesting: a comparative study within six major cities of Bangladesh. Resour Conserv Recy 133:146–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.01.025
Brazil (2007) Estabelece diretrizes nacionais para o saneamento básico; altera as Leis No 6766/1979, 8036/1990, 8666/1993, 8987/1995; revoga a Lei No 6528/1978; e dá outras providências
Brazil (2011) Portaria No 2.914, de 12 de dezembro de 2011. Dispõe sobre os procedimentos de controle e de vigilância da qualidade da água para consumo humano e seu padrão de potabilidade
CASAN Companhia Catarinense de Águas e Saneamento (2020) http://www.casan.com.br/#0. Accessed 8 May 2020
de Lima GN, Lombardo MA, Magaña V (2018) Urban water supply and the changes in the precipitation patterns in the metropolitan area of São Paulo–Brazil. Appl Geogr 94:223–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2018.03.010
Dias TF, Kalbusch A, Henning E (2018) Factors influencing water consumption in buildings in southern Brazil. J Clean Prod 184:160–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.093
Feng LH, Zhang XC, Luo GY (2008) Application of system dynamics in analyzing the carrying capacity of water resources in Yiwu City, China. Math Comput Simul 79(3):269–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matcom.2007.11.018
Ford A (2009) Modeling the environment (second ed.). Island Press, Washington, DC
Gao Y, Yu M (2018) Assessment of the economic impact of south-to-north water diversion project on industrial sectors in Beijing. J Econ Struct 7(1):4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40008-018-0104-4
Geraldi MS, Ghisi E (2018) Assessment of the length of rainfall time series for rainwater harvesting in buildings. Resour Conserv Recy 133:231–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.02.007
Ghasemi A, Saghafian B, Golian S (2017) System dynamics approach for simulating water resources of an urban water system with emphasis on sustainability of groundwater. Environ Earth Sci 76(18):637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-6887-z
Huang TL, Xu ZQ, Wang XC, Zhang H (2006) Optimization analysis of decentralised sanitation and re-use system. Water Sci Technol 53(9):221–228. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2006.268
IBGE Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2010) https://sidra.ibge.gov.br/tabela/3650. Accessed 29 May 2018
Köberl J, Prettenthaler F, Bird DN (2016) Modelling climate change impacts on tourism demand: a comparative study from Sardinia (Italy) and Cap Bon (Tunisia). Sci Total Environ 543:1039–1053. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.099
Lin HH, Lee SS, Perng YS, Yu ST (2018) Investigation about the impact of tourism development on a water conservation area in Taiwan. Sustainability 10(7):2328. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072328
Luna TF, Uriona-Maldonado M, Silva ME, Vaz CR (2020) The influence of e-carsharing schemes on electric vehicle adoption and carbon emissions: an emerging economy study. Transport Res D: Transp Environ 79:102226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2020.102226
Mello K, Randhir T (2018) Diagnosis of water crises in the metropolitan area of São Paulo: policy opportunities for sustainability. Urban Water J 15(1):53–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2017.1395895
Morales-Pinzón T, Rieradevall J, Gasol CM, Gabarrell X (2015) Modelling for economic cost and environmental analysis of rainwater harvesting systems. J Clean Prod 87(C):613–626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.10.021
Morecroft JDW (2015) Strategic modelling and business dynamics: a feedback systems approach, second edn. Wiley, Chichester
Pluchinotta I, Pagano A, Giordano R, Tsoukiàs A (2018) A system dynamics model for supporting decision-makers in irrigation water management. J Environ Manag 223:815–824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.06.083
Qin H, Cai X, Zheng C (2018) Water demand predictions for megacities: system dynamics modeling and implications. Water Policy 20(1):53–76. https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2017.168
Rozos E, Butler D, Makropoulos C (2016) An integrated system dynamics - cellular automata model for distributed water-infrastructure planning. Water Sci Tech Water Supply 16(6):1519–1527. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2016.080
Sahin O, Bertone E, Beal C, Stewart RA (2018) Evaluating a novel tiered scarcity adjusted water budget and pricing structure using a holistic systems modelling approach. J Environ Manag 215:79–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.03.037
SANTUR Agência de Desenvolvimento do Turismo de Santa Catarina (2017) http://turismo.sc.gov.br/institucional/index.php/pt-br/. Accessed 12 Dec 2017
Sitzenfrei R, Zischg J, Sitzmann M, Bach PM (2017) Impact of hybrid water supply on the centralised water system. Water 9(11):855. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110855
SNIS Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento (2019) http://www.snis.gov.br/diagnostico-anual-agua-e-esgotos/diagnostico-dos-servicos-de-agua-e-esgotos-2018. Accessed 7 May 2020
Stave KA (2003) A system dynamics model to facilitate public understanding of water management options in Las Vegas, Nevada. J Environ Manag 67(4):303–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4797(02)00205-0
Sterman JD (2000) Business dynamics: systems thinking and modeling for a complex world, no. HD30. 2 S7835 2000. McGraw-Hill Education, Boston
Sun Y, Liu N, Shang J, Zhang J (2017) Sustainable utilization of water resources in China: a system dynamics model. J Clean Prod 142:613–625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.07.110
Tomaz P (2007) Use of rainwater: for urban areas and non-potable purposes. http://abcmac.org.br/files/simposio/6simp_plinio_agua.pdf. Accessed 29 May 2017
Tsutiya MT (2006) Abastecimento de Água, third edn. Department of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering of the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo
UN United Nations (2010) The Human Right to Water and Sanitation. http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/pdf/human_right_to_water_and_sanitation_media_brief.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2018
Urich C, Rauch W (2014) Modelling the urban water cycle as an integrated part of the city: a review. Water Sci Technol 70(11):1857–1872. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2014.363
Winz I, Brierley G, Trowsdale S (2009) The use of system dynamics simulation in water resources management. Water Resour Manag 23(7):1301–1323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-008-9328-7
WRG 2030 WATER RESOURCES GROUP (2009) Charting our water future: economic frameworks to inform decision-making. McKinsey & Company, New York
Xu ZX, Takeuchi K, Ishidaira H, Zhang XW (2002) Sustainability analysis for Yellow River water resources using the system dynamics approach. Water Resour Manag 16(3):239–261. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020206826669
Zeisl P, Mair M, Kastlunger U, Bach PM, Rauch W, Sitzenfrei R, Kleidorfer M (2018) Conceptual urban water balance model for water policy testing: an approach for large scale investigation. Sustainability 10(3):716. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030716
This study was financed in part by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education (CAPES) and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) to whom we thank for the support.
Conflicts of Interest/Competing Interests
The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or any kind of conflicts of interest that could influence this paper.
Not applicable to this paper.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Fernandes, S., Bonfante, M.C., de Oliveira, C.T. et al. Decentralized Water Supply Management Model: a Case Study of Public Policies for the Utilization of Rainwater. Water Resour Manage (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-020-02575-8
- Systems dynamics
- Public policies and rainwater