Water Resources Management

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 417–431 | Cite as

Urban Water Conservation Evaluation Based on Multi-grade Uncertain Comprehensive Evaluation Method



Water is not only the resource of life but also the important resource for a nation survival and development. Nowadays, the water crisis has become one of the most essential factors to restrict urban development. In this case, taking reasonable and effective method for comprehensive evaluation of urban water conservation level is helpful for promoting the construction of water-saving city. The main contribution of this paper is providing a new evaluation method for urban water saving. First, an urban water-saving evaluation index system is built. And the index system takes six water-saving standards including comprehensive water saving, domestic water saving, ecological water saving, industrial water saving, agricultural water saving and social economy as criteria. Then, the water-saving assessment model is proposed based on the Multi-grade Uncertain Comprehensive Evaluation (MUCE) Method. In this method, the important degree and the corresponding remark of each evaluation index are both considered to be uncertain variables due to the human uncertainty. The weights as well as the final evaluation result are obtained according to their uncertainty distributions and the votes of experts. At last, the comprehensive evaluation for water-saving level of Handan City located in North China is studied.


Urban water conservation evaluation Uncertainty theory Uncertain variable MUCE Method 



This work was supported by Hebei Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. G2013402063) and the Foundation of Hebei Education Department (Grant No. ZD2017016).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mathematics & PhysicsHebei University of EngineeringHandanChina
  2. 2.School of Mathematics and Information ScienceShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anChina

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