Water Resources Management

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 417–431 | Cite as

Urban Water Conservation Evaluation Based on Multi-grade Uncertain Comprehensive Evaluation Method

Article
  • 122 Downloads

Abstract

Water is not only the resource of life but also the important resource for a nation survival and development. Nowadays, the water crisis has become one of the most essential factors to restrict urban development. In this case, taking reasonable and effective method for comprehensive evaluation of urban water conservation level is helpful for promoting the construction of water-saving city. The main contribution of this paper is providing a new evaluation method for urban water saving. First, an urban water-saving evaluation index system is built. And the index system takes six water-saving standards including comprehensive water saving, domestic water saving, ecological water saving, industrial water saving, agricultural water saving and social economy as criteria. Then, the water-saving assessment model is proposed based on the Multi-grade Uncertain Comprehensive Evaluation (MUCE) Method. In this method, the important degree and the corresponding remark of each evaluation index are both considered to be uncertain variables due to the human uncertainty. The weights as well as the final evaluation result are obtained according to their uncertainty distributions and the votes of experts. At last, the comprehensive evaluation for water-saving level of Handan City located in North China is studied.

Keywords

Urban water conservation evaluation Uncertainty theory Uncertain variable MUCE Method 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Hebei Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. G2013402063) and the Foundation of Hebei Education Department (Grant No. ZD2017016).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Alexandrov V, Genev M (2003) Climate variability and change impact on water resources in Bulgaria. Eur Water 1–2:25–30Google Scholar
  2. Anderson T W (1982) Introduction to multivariate statistical analysis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson J (2003) The environmental benefits of water recycling and reuse. Water Supp 3(4):1–10Google Scholar
  4. Angelakis A N, Gikas P (2014) Water reuse: overview of current practices and trends in the world with emphasis on EU states. Water Util. J 8:67–78Google Scholar
  5. Cai Z, Li S (2006) Comprehensive assessment of urban water saving level based on AHM. Chin Water Waste Water 22(7):54–56. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. Chen J, Wang H, Yang W (2011) Research on water-saving society construction evaluation based on grey incidence model. Comput Sci Environ Eng Ecoinform 158:397–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen J, Ma L, Wang C, Zhang H, Ha M (2014) Comprehensive evaluation model for coal mine safety based on uncertain random variables. Safe Sci 68(68):146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deng J (1982) Control problems of grey systems. Syst Control Lett 1(5):288–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deng L, Chen S, Karney B (2012) Comprehensive evaluation method of urban water resources utilization based on dynamic reduct. Water Resour Manag 26 (10):2733–2745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fraser G, Hill M P, Martin J A (2016) Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological control of water hyacinth at New Years Dam, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Afr J Aqua Sci 41(2):1–8Google Scholar
  11. Gois E H B D, Rios C A S, Costanzi R N (2015) Evaluation of water conservation and reuse: a case study of a shopping mall in southern Brazil. J Clean Prod 96:263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang S, Shan L (2009) Water-saving social construction analysis of Yangtze River Basin. Express Water Resour Hydropower 2:12–15. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Li S, Su Y (2007) Comprehensive assessment of city water-saving level based on the unascertained measure model. J Water-Saving Irrig 6:7–9. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Liu B (2007) Uncertain theory, 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu B (2010) Uncertain theory: a branch of mathematics for modeling human uncertainty. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu J (2011) Uncertain comprehensive evaluation method. J Inf Comput Sci 8 (2):336–344Google Scholar
  17. Liu A, Giurco D, Mukheibir P (2016) Urban water conservation through customised water and end-use information. J Clean Prod 112:3164–3175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maimone M, Labiak M (2014) Assessing Nassau Countys water conservation program. J Water Resour Plan Manag 120:90–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pawlak Z (1982) Rough sets. Int J Comput Inf Sci 11(5):341–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Prinz D, Malik A H (2004) More yield with less water. How efficient can be water conservation in agriculture Eur Water 5–6:47–58Google Scholar
  21. Saaty T L (1980) The analytic hierarchy process. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Sušnik J, Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia L S, Savić D A, Kapelan Z (2012) Integrated system dynamics modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region. Sci Total Environ 440(3):290–306Google Scholar
  23. Tarnacki K (2013) Evaluating industrial water saving and water management options in order to mitigate water stress. Thesis PhD, RWTH AachenGoogle Scholar
  24. Tsakiris G (2015) The status of the European waters in 2015: a review. Environ Process 2(3):543–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Umapathi S, Chong M N, Sharma A K (2013) Evaluation of plumbed rainwater tanks in households for sustainable water resource management: a real-time monitoring study. J Clean Prod 42(3):204–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang P (1980) Brief introduction of fuzzy mathematics (I), (II). Math Pract Theory 2(3):45–59Google Scholar
  27. Xie Y, Liu J, Ning Y, Sha H (2012) Multi-grade uncertain comprehensive evaluation method. Adv Inf Sci Serv Sci 4(6):1–8Google Scholar
  28. Xu P, Tang Y, Zhang Y, Wang R (2010) Conceptual model used to construct an indicator system for evaluating a city’s water conservation level. Int Conf Manag Serv Sci 1–4Google Scholar
  29. Yang H (2013) On comonotonic functions of uncertain variables. Fuzzy Optim Dec Mak 12(1):89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yang F, Fu Y (2014) Uncertain comprehensive evaluation method based on expected value. J Syst Sci Inf 2(5):461–472Google Scholar
  31. Zadeh L (1965) Fuzzy Sets Inf Control 8(65):338–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mathematics & PhysicsHebei University of EngineeringHandanChina
  2. 2.School of Mathematics and Information ScienceShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations