Water Resources Management

, Volume 31, Issue 15, pp 5043–5059 | Cite as

Optimal Location of Pump as Turbines (PATs) in Water Distribution Networks to Recover Energy and Reduce Leakage

  • Oreste Fecarotta
  • Aonghus McNabola


Water distribution networks are high energy and low efficiency systems, where water pressure is frequently reduced by dissipation valves to limit leakage. The dissipation produced by the valves can be converted to energy production to increase the efficiency and reduce the energy impact of networks. If valves are replaced by turbines or pumps as turbines (PATs), they can both reduce pressure and produce energy. This study focuses on the optimal location of PATs within a water distribution network in order to both produce energy and reduce leakage. A new optimization model is developed consisting of several linear and non-linear constraints and a newly proposed objective function, where the turbine installation costs as well as the energy production and the economic saving due to the reduction of leakage can be accounted all together. The case study shows that the application of the mathematical model to a synthetic network ensures better results, in terms of both energy production and water saving, in comparison to other procedures.


Energy saving Water Leakage Water losses Pump as Turbines (PATs) Energy production Water distribution networks 



The research was developed with the help of the Brief mobility program of Univesity of Naples “Federico II” and was part funded by the ERDF Interreg Ireland-Wales Programme 2014–2020.

Supplementary material

11269_2017_1795_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (148 kb)
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11269_2017_1795_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (356 kb)
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11269_2017_1795_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (163 kb)
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringTrinity College of DublinDublinIreland

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