Water Resources Management

, Volume 31, Issue 15, pp 4957–4969 | Cite as

A Novel Multi-Scalar Drought Index for Monitoring Drought: the Standardized Precipitation Temperature Index

  • Zuliqar Ali
  • Ijaz Hussain
  • Muhammad Faisal
  • Hafiza Mamona Nazir
  • Mitwali Abd-el Moemen
  • Tajammal Hussain
  • Sadaf Shamsuddin


Nowadays human beings are facing many environmental challenges because of frequently occurring drought hazards. Several adverse impacts of drought hazard are continued in many parts of the world. Drought has a substantial influence on water resources and irrigation. It may effect on the country’s environment, communities, and industries. Therefore, it is important to improve drought monitoring system. In this paper, we proposed a novel method – Standardized Precipitation Temperature Index (SPTI) for drought monitoring that utilize the regional tempreature. We compared the performance of our proposed drought index – SPTI with commonly used drought indices (i.e., Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI)) for 17 meteorological stations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province (Pakistan) that have both extreme (arid and humid) climatic environment. We found that SPTI is strongly correlated with SPI and performed better than SPEI in low temperature regions for drought monitoring. In summary, SPTI is recommended for detecting and monitoring the drought conditions over different time scales.


Drought hazard Probability distributions Estimation SPI SPEI Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 



The Authors are grateful to Alaa Mohamd Shoukry, Muhammad Yousaf Shad, and Showkat Gani for their valuable comments to improve the manuscript. The authors are thankful to the Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University, Riyadh Saudi Arabia for funding research through research group project RGP-280.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Statistics, Quaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Faculty of Health StudiesUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK
  3. 3.Bradford Institute for Health ResearchBradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustBradfordUK
  4. 4.College of Law and Political ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of StatisticsCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyLahorePakistan
  6. 6.College of Business AdministrationKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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