Water Resources Management

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 1105–1119 | Cite as

Online Ensemble Modeling for Real Time Water Level Forecasts

  • Lan Yu
  • Soon Keat Tan
  • Lloyd H. C. Chua


Accurate and reliable flood forecasting is essential to mitigate the threats brought by floods. Ensemble approaches have been used in limited studies to improve the forecasts of component models. In this paper an ensemble model based on neural-fuzzy inference system (NFIS) and three real time updating approaches were used to synthesize the water level forecasts from a Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model and the Unified River Basin Simulator (URBS) model for three stations in Lower Mekong. The NFIS ensemble model results are compared with the simple average model (SAM) which is adopted as a benchmark ensemble model. The ensemble model of offline learning without real time updating (EN-OFF), ensemble model with real time updating using offline learning (EN-RTOFF), ensemble model with real time updating using online learning (EN-RTON1) and ensemble model with real time updating using online learning and sub-models (EN-RTON2) were studied in this paper. Statistical analysis of the models for all the three stations indicated the superiority of the EN-RTON2 model over EN-RTOFF, EN-RTON1 models, SAM and the EN-OFF model. Not only the spikes in the URBS model were eliminated, but also the time shift problems in the ANFIS model results were decreased.


Ensemble model Real time Online learning DENFIS Lower Mekong 



The measured data and the results of the URBS model were generously provided by the Mekong River Commission.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary Fig. S1 (DOCX 447 kb)
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Supplementary Fig. S2 (DOCX 79 kb)
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Supplementary Fig. S3 (DOCX 80 kb)
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Supplementary Fig. S4 (DOCX 81 kb)
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Supplementary Table S1 (DOCX 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Maritime Research Centre (MRC)Nanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI)SingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.School of EngineeringDeakin UniversityWaurn PondsAustralia

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