Table 5 Standardized coefficients of the effects of parental modelling and parental encouragement on informal volunteering for friends and for neighbours, emotional support and various informal volunteering behaviours.

From: Informal Volunteering and Socialization Effects: Examining Modelling and Encouragement by Parents and Partner

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
β β β β
B1.A Informal volunteering for friends (N = 2443)
Parental modelling 0.077*** 0.068** 0.083*** 0.081***
Parental encouragement 0.037 0.003 0.003 0.004
B1.B Informal volunteering for neighbours (N = 2395)    
Parental modelling 0.100*** 0.091*** 0.103*** 0.102***
Parental encouragement 0.002 − 0.017 − 0.011 − 0.009
B1.C Emotional support for friends and neighbours (N = 2457)
Parental modelling 0.078*** 0.068** 0.066** 0.065**
Parental encouragement 0.058** 0.008 0.009 0.007
B1.D Helping with chores in or around the house (N = 2407)
Parental modelling 0.090*** 0.084*** 0.094*** 0.093***
Parental encouragement 0.029 0.006 0.007 0.007
B1.E Lending tools, equipment or clothes (N = 2399)
Parental modelling 0.109*** 0.104*** 0.101*** 0.093***
Parental encouragement − 0.011 − 0.037 − 0.038 − 0.038
B1.F Helping with activities or events (N = 2381)
Parental modelling 0.141*** 0.128*** 0.122*** 0.123***
Parental encouragement 0.013 − 0.020 − 0.021 − 0.020
B1.G Looking after (grand)children (N = 2241)
Parental modelling 0.027 0.019 0.048* 0.053*
Parental encouragement − 0.005 − 0.017 − 0.012 − 0.006
B1.H Taking care of pets and plants when someone is on holiday (N = 2371)
Parental modelling 0.074*** 0.070** 0.072*** 0.064**
Parental encouragement 0.041* 0.018 0.022 0.022
B1.I Driving someone to an appointment or providing other transport (N = 2393)
Parental modelling 0.044* 0.034 0.048* 0.047*
Parental encouragement 0.034 0.005 0.007 0.005
  1. Models are controlled for the same variables as in Table 3. Full models are available at the authors
  2. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05