Table 3 Standardized coefficients of the effects of parental modelling and parental encouragement on informal volunteering (N = 2464).

From: Informal Volunteering and Socialization Effects: Examining Modelling and Encouragement by Parents and Partner

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
β β β β
Parental modelling 0.098*** 0.088*** 0.102*** 0.101***
Parental encouragement 0.020 − 0.009 − 0.007 − 0.005
Other internal motivations
Agreeableness   0.043 0.045 0.046
Extraversion   0.131*** 0.140*** 0.138***
Being religious   0.064** 0.058** 0.058**
Resources
Employment status (ref. = full time)     
 Part time    0.017 0.015
 Non-employed    0.075** 0.074
Education    − 0.051* − 0.053
Core discussion network size     − 0.008  − 0.003
Health     − 0.006  − 0.004
Household income     − 0.009  − 0.024
Family characteristics
Having a partner     0.035
Parental education     0.028
Control variables
Gender (ref. = female)  − 0.013 0.004 0.019 0.019
Age 0.065** 0.057** 0.019 0.022
R2 0.013 0.039 0.047 0.049
  1. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05