Encrypted Biography of Biomedical Image - a Pentalayer Cryptosystem on FPGA
- 15 Downloads
Secure transmission of medical information occupies a crucial role in the world of telemedicine applications. Reconfigurable hardware implementation offers several advantages over software implementation especially for real time security applications. This work aims to propose the novel implementation of a penta-layer medical image encryption using a reconfigurable Cyclone II Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) EP2C35F672C6. The first layer of encryption performs the row-wise and column-wise pixel permutations based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR). The second and third layers of encryption are based on maximal length sequence Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) 16-bit Cellular automata (CA) circuit and Galois Field (GF) product. In the fourth layer, a synthetic image is subsequently created by chaotic clock with Phase Lock Loop (PLLs) and gates to diffuse the image pixels. This creation of synthetic image for diffusion makes the developed cryptosystem totally hardware dependent. Last layer performs the diffusion using one dimensional logistic map. The synthesized result reveals that the reconfigurable implementation of proposed encryption process consumes comparatively lesser logic elements (2480) and low power consumption (278.65 mW) with an encryption time of 215.92 ms for encrypting a 256 × 256 DICOM medical image. Finally, various analyses such as Number of Pixel Change Rate (NPCR), Unified Average Change in Intensity (UACI), Entropy, Correlation, Uniform distribution and NIST statistical test suite have been performed to prove the robustness of the algorithm against various attacks.
KeywordsImage encryption FPGA LFSR Cellular automata Chaotic clock Logistic map
The authors wish to thank SASTRA University for providing infrastructure through the Research & Modernization Fund (Ref.No: R&M / 0026 / SEEE – 010 / 2012 – 13) to carry out the research work. They also wish to express their sincere thanks to the INSPIRE Fellowship (No. DST/INSPIRE Fellowship/2015/IF15062), Department of Science and Technology (DST), India for their financial support.
- 6.Huang, H. K., Wong, A. W. K., Lou, A. S. L., Bazzill, T. M., Andriole, K., Zhang, J., et al. (1996). Clinical experience with a second-generation hospital-integrated picture archiving and communication system. Journal of Digital Imaging, 9(4), 151–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03168612 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Bidgood, W. D., & Horii, S. C. (1992). Introduction to the ACR-NEMA DICOM standard. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, 12(2), 345–355. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiographics.12.2.1561424 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Lv, Y., & Tong, X. (2009). A novel method of chaotic image encryption based on LFSR. In Proceedings - International Conference on Management and Service Science, MASS 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMSS.2009.5302775.
- 13.Abdelhaleem, S. H., Radwan, A. G., & Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K. (2013). Utilizing LFSR and Feistel networks in image encryption. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems (pp. 601–604). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICECS.2013.6815486.
- 18.Wolfram, S. (1986). Cryptography with Cellular Automata. In Advances in Cryptology (pp. 429–432). London: Springer-Verlag. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=646751.704557.
- 28.Azzaz, M. S., Tanougast, C., Sadoudi, S., Bouridane, A., & Dandache, A. (2009). FPGA implementation of new real-time image encryption based switching chaotic systems. In Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC 2009), IET Irish (pp. 1–6). https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2009.1733.
- 29.Ledesma-Carrillo, L. M., Lopez-Ramirez, M., Cabal-Yepez, E., Ojeda-Castaneda, J., Rodriguez-Donate, C., & Lizarraga-Morales, R. A. (2016). FPGA-based reconfigurable unit for image encryption using orthogonal functions. In 2016 International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP) (pp. 168–173). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. https://doi.org/10.1109/CONIELECOMP.2016.7438570.
- 30.Kumar, S. K. N., Kumar, H. S. S., & Panduranga, H. T. (2013). Hardware software co-simulation of dual image encryption using Latin square image. In 2013 4th International Conference on Computing, Communications and Networking Technologies, ICCCNT 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCCNT.2013.6726681.
- 31.Hai, C., Yu, S., Chunguang, H., Yu, S., & Qun, D. (2015). Design and Realization of Image Encryption System Based on Compound Logistic Chaotic System. In 2015 Third International Conference on Robot, Vision and Signal Processing (RVSP) (pp. 75–77). https://doi.org/10.1109/RVSP.2015.27.
- 32.Tang, Z., & Yu, S. (2012). Design and realization of digital image encryption and decryption based on multi-wing butterfly chaotic attractors. In Image and Signal Processing (CISP), 2012 5th International Congress on (pp. 1143–1147). https://doi.org/10.1109/CISP.2012.6469744.
- 34.Torres-Huitzil, C. (2013). Hardware realization of a lightweight 2D cellular automata-based cipher for image encryption. In 2013 I.E. 4th Latin American Symposium on Circuits and Systems, LASCAS 2013 - Conference Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1109/LASCAS.2013.6519023.
- 35.Jahiruzzaman, M., Hossain, A. B. M. A., & Saha, S. (2015). Implementation of 2D torus automorphisms for image encryption on FPGA. In 2nd International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information and Communication Technology, iCEEiCT 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEEICT.2015.7307452.
- 36.Shah, S. S. H., & Raja, G. (2016). FPGA implementation of chaotic based AES image encryption algorithm. In IEEE 2015 International Conference on Signal and Image Processing Applications, ICSIPA 2015 - Proceedings (pp. 574–577). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSIPA.2015.7412256.
- 38.Mansingka, A. S., Affan Zidan, M., Barakat, M. L., Radwan, A. G., & Salama, K. N. (2013). Fully digital jerk-based chaotic oscillators for high throughput pseudo-random number generators up to 8.77 Gbits/s. Microelectronics Journal, 44(9), 744–752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mejo.2013.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Zidan, M. A., Radwan, A. G., & Salama, K. N. (2011). The effect of numerical techniques on differential equation based chaotic generators. In ICM 2011 Proceeding (pp. 1–4). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICM.2011.6177395.
- 40.Mansingka, A. S., Radwan, A. G., Zidan, M. A., & Salama, K. N. (2011). Analysis of bus width and delay on a fully digital signum nonlinearity chaotic oscillator. In Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. https://doi.org/10.1109/MWSCAS.2011.6026596.
- 45.Ramalingam, B., Ravichandran, D., Annadurai, A. A., Rengarajan, A., & Rayappan, J. B. B. (2017). Chaos triggered image encryption - a reconfigurable security solution. Multimedia Tools and Applications. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-017-4811-x
- 50.Al-Mamun, A., Rahman, S. S. M., Ahmed Shaon, T., & Hossain, M. (2017). Security analysis of AES and enhancing its security by modifying S-box with an additional byte. International journal of Computer Networks & Communications, 9(2), 69–88. https://doi.org/10.5121/ijcnc.2017.9206 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 51.Zhang, Q., & Qunding, A. (2015). Digital image encryption based on Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) algorithm. 5th International Conference on Instrumentation and Measurement, Computer, Communication, and Control, IMCCC 2015 (pp. 1218–1221). https://doi.org/10.1109/IMCCC.2015.261.
- 52.Zhang, Y., Li, X., Hou, W. (2017). A Fast Image Encryption Scheme Based on AES. In 2nd International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (pp. 624–628).Google Scholar