Virus Genes

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 280–289 | Cite as

A local strain of Paprika mild mottle virus breaks L3 resistance in peppers and is accelerated in Tomato brown rugose fruit virus-infected Tm-22-resistant tomatoes

  • Neta Luria
  • Elisheva Smith
  • Noa Sela
  • Oded Lachman
  • Ilana Bekelman
  • Amnon Koren
  • Aviv Dombrovsky


During October 2014, unfamiliar mild mosaic and mottling symptoms were identified on leaves of pepper (Capsicum chinense cv. Habanero) seedlings grown in the Arava valley in Israel 2–3 weeks post planting. Symptomatic plants were tested positive by ELISA using laboratory-produced antisera for tobamovirus species. Typical tobamovirus rod-shaped morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of purified virion preparation that was used for mechanical inoculation of laboratory test plants for the completion of Koch’s postulates. The complete viral genome was sequenced from small interfering RNA purified from symptomatic pepper leaves and fruits by next-generation sequencing (NGS) using Illumina MiSeq platform. The contigs generated by the assembly covered 80% of the viral genome. RT-PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing were employed in order to validate the sequence generated by NGS technology. The nucleotide sequence of the complete viral genome was 99% identical to the complete genome of Paprika mild mottle virus isolate from Japan (PaMMV-J), and the deduced amino acid sequence was 99% identical to PaMMV-J protein. Amplicons from seed RNA showed 100% identity to the viral isolate from the collected symptomatic pepper plants. Partial host range analysis revealed a slow development of systemic infection in inoculated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Interestingly, double inoculation of susceptible wild-type tomato plants and Tm-22-resistant tomato plants with the PaMMV-IL and Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) resulted in accelerated viral expression in the plants.


Tobamovirus Virus transmission 



We would like to acknowledge Dr. Nadav Elad from the Electron Microscopy Unit, Departments of Chemical Research Support, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel for the TEM analysis. This work was supported by the Chief Scientist, Israel Ministry of Agriculture, Management of Tm-22 Tobamo breaker in tomato plants, initiative project number 261–1159. Contribution number 575/17 from the Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyARO The Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael
  2. 2.Hishtil Nurseries NehalimMoshav NehalimIsrael

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