Virus Genes

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 311–318 | Cite as

Genomics of Salmonella phage ΦStp1: candidate bacteriophage for biocontrol

  • K. S. Sritha
  • Sarita G. Bhat


Multidrug-resistant Salmonella causing Salmonellosis is a food-borne pathogen and hence a public health hazard. Alternatives to antibiotics, such as phages, are possible solutions to this increasing drug resistance. In this context, several Salmonella phages were isolated and characterized. This paper describes the physiochemical and whole genome characterization of one such bacteriophage, ΦStp1, which efficiently infects serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Morphological observations by transmission electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis using terminase gene classified ΦStp1 to family Siphoviridae, closely resembling ‘T5 like phage’ morpho-types. With a maximum adsorption time of 50 min, ΦStp1 latent period was 30 min with 37 phages/cell burst size. ΦStp1 draft genome sequenced by shotgun method comprised 112,149 bp in 3 contigs with 37.99% GC content, 168 predicted ORFs, and 15 tRNAs. Genes involved in host shut down, DNA replication, regulation, nucleotide metabolism, lysis, and morphogenesis were also noted. The study not only provided an insight into the characteristics of phage genome, but also information about proteins encoded by bacteriophages, therefore contributing to understanding phage diversity. Sequence analysis also proved the absence of virulence and lysogeny-related genes, which only went to confirm ΦStp1 as a promising therapeutic agent against Salmonella infections.


Genome Bacteriophage Salmonella Drug resistance Foodborne Gastrointestinal 



The work was supported by KSCSTE project grant F.No. 009/SRSHS/2012/CSTE awarded to Dr. Sarita G. Bhat. The authors acknowledge Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology for providing all facilities for research. The authors are grateful to Tina K.J for critical analysis of paper and Harisree P.Nair for suggestions in the analysis of data.

Authors’ contribution

Author SKS was responsible for bacteriophage isolation, preparation of DNA, genome annotation, analysis, and manuscript preparation. SGB conceived the study, aided the design of the experiments, and prepared manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animals rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants.

Supplementary material

11262_2018_1538_MOESM1_ESM.docx (37 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 37 kb)
11262_2018_1538_MOESM2_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 20 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyCochin University of Science and TechnologyCochinIndia

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