Plant Ecology

, Volume 218, Issue 4, pp 447–457 | Cite as

Sprouting capacity of Persea borbonia and maritime forest community response to simulated laurel wilt disease

Article

Abstract

There are numerous examples of how exotic insect pests and pathogens have altered the dominance of native tree species. Changes to the structure of associated communities will depend on whether the affected species survives and if so, the degree to which it is diminished. In the southeastern USA, Persea borbonia, a common tree found in many coastal plain habitats, is the primary host of laurel wilt disease (LWD); infection rates and main-stem mortality are catastrophically high (>90%) in invaded populations. We simulated the effects of LWD prior to its arrival in coastal Mississippi by girdling and then removing the main stems of P. borbonia trees. Over a 2-year period, we monitored P. borbonia persistence via basal resprouts, understory light availability, and community structure. Removal of P. borbonia main stems resulted in a 50% increase in light transmission (measured at 1 m above ground level). All treated individuals produced basal resprouts, the size and number of which were positively related to initial tree girth. Post-treatment increases in basal area were greatest for the sub-canopy species, Ilex vomitoria, and were significantly higher in treatment versus control plots. Woody seedlings and herbaceous plants showed no significant trends in composition and abundance over time or between control and treatment plots. Our results suggest that removal of P. borbonia and subsequent resprouting causes shifts in P. borbonia size class frequencies and sub-canopy species dominance but has negligible impacts on understory plant community dynamics.

Keywords

Biological invasion Forest insect pests and disease Persistence Plant community dynamics Vegetative reproduction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would first like to acknowledge Matt Abbott, Jesse Fruchter, and Diane Harshbarger for their help in the field. We also thank Will Underwood and Dr. Mark Woodrey for their logistical assistance at Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. This research was conducted in the National Estuarine Reserve System under an award from the Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

References

  1. Anagnostakis SL (1987) Chestnut blight: the classical problem of an introduced pathogen. Mycologia 79:23–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson MJ, Gorley RN, Clarke KR (2008) PERMANOVA + for PRIMER: guide to software and statistical methods. PRIMER-E, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes BV (1976) Succession in deciduous swamp communities of southeastern Michigan formerly dominated by American elm. Can J Bot 54:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Battaglia LL, Sharitz RR (2006) Responses of floodplain forest species to spatially condensed gradients: a test of the flood-shade tolerance tradeoff hypothesis. Oecologia 147:108–118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bazzaz FA, Miao SL (1993) Successional status, seed size, and response of tree seedlings to CO2, light, and nutrients. Ecology 74:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bellingham PJ, Sparrow AD (2000) Resprouting as a life history strategy in woody plant communities. Oikos 89:409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bond WJ, Midgley JJ (2001) Ecology of sprouting in woody plants: the persistence niche. Trends Ecol Evol 16:45–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bray JR, Curtis JT (1957) An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecol Appl 27:325–349Google Scholar
  9. Brendemuehl RH (1990) Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. Redbay. In: Burns RM, Honkala LH (tech coord) Silvics of North America, Hardwoods (2nd Volume). US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 503–506Google Scholar
  10. Cameron RS, Hanula J, Fraedrich S, Bates C (2015) Progression and impact of laurel wilt disease within redbay and sassafras populations in southeast Georgia. Southeast Nat 14:650–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Canham CD, Berkowitz AR, Kelly VR, Lovett GM, Ollinger SV, Schnurr J (1996) Biomass allocation and multiple resource limitation in tree seedlings. Can J For Res 26:1521–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chupp AD, Battaglia LL (2014) Potential for host-shifting in Papilio palamedes following invasion of laurel wilt disease. Biol Invasions 16:2639–2651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chupp AD, Battaglia LL (2016) Bird-plant interactions and vulnerability to biological invasions. J Plant Ecol. doi: 10.1093/jpe/rtw020 Google Scholar
  14. Chupp AD, Battaglia LL, Schauber EM, Sipes SD (2015) Orchid-pollinator interactions and potential vulnerability to biological invasion. AoB Plants. doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plv099 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Clarke PJ, Lawes MJ, Midgley JJ (2010) Resprouting as a key functional trait in woody plants—challenges to developing new organizing principles. New Phytol 188:651–654CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Clarke PJ, Lawes MJ, Midgley JJ, Lamont BB, Ojeda F, Burrows GE, Enright NJ, Know KJE (2013) Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire. New Phytol 197:19–35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dufrêne M, Legendre P (1997) Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecol Monogr 67:345–366Google Scholar
  18. Dunn CP (1986) Shrub layer response to death of Ulmus americana in southeastern Wisconsin lowland forests. Bull Torrey Bot Club 113:142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Evans JP, Scheffers BR, Hess M (2013) Effects of laurel wilt invasion on redbay populations in a maritime forest community. Biol Invasions 16:1581–1588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Forrester JA, McGee GG, Mitchell MJ (2003) Effects of beech bark disease on aboveground biomass and species composition in a mature northern hardwood forest, 1985 to 2000. J Torrey Bot Soc 130:70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fraedrich SW, Harrington TC, Rabaglia RJ et al (2008) A fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle causes a lethal wilt in redbay and other Lauraceae in the southeastern United States. Plant Dis 92:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frazer GW, Canham CD, Lertzman KP (1999) Gap Light Analyzer (GLA), Version 2.0: Imaging software to extract canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from true-colour fisheye photographs, user’s manual and program documentation. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, and the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Garcia D, Zamora R (2003) Persistence, multiple demographic strategies and conservation in long-lived Mediterranean plants. J Veg Sci 14:921–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goldberg N, Heine J (2009) A comparison of arborescent vegetation pre- (1983) and post- (2008) outbreak of the invasive species the Asian ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus in a Florida maritime hammock. Plant Ecol Divers 2:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gramling JM (2010) Potential effects of laurel wilt on the flora of North America. Southeast Nat 9:827–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Griffin JM (1989) Incidence of chestnut blight and survival of American chestnut in forest clearcut and neighboring understory sites. Plant Dis 73:123–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grubb PJ (1977) The maintenance of species-richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biol Rev 52:107–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hanula JL, Mayfield AE III, Fraedrich SW, Rabaglia RJ (2008) Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the southeastern United States. J Econ Entomol 101:1276–1286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Houston DR, Parker EJ, Lonsdale D (1979) Beech bark disease: patterns of spread and development of the initiating agent Cryptococcus fagisuga. Can J For Res 18:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kilroy B, Keith W (1999) Tree girdling tools. Technical Report 9924-2809-MTDC. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center, Missoula, MT. http://www.fs.fed.us/eng/pubs/pdfpubs/pdf99242809/pdf99242809pt01.pdf. Accessed 26 Mar 2015
  31. Knox KJE, Clarke PJ (2005) Nutrient availability induces contrasting allocation and starch formation in resprouting and obligate seedling shrubs. Funct Ecol 19:690–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mayfield AE III (2008) Laurel wilt. Forest and shade tree pests leaflet number 13. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Forestry, GainsvilleGoogle Scholar
  33. McCune B, Grace JB (2002) Analysis of ecological communities. MjM Software Design, Gleneden BeachGoogle Scholar
  34. McCune B, Mefford MJ (1999) PC-ORD. Multivariate analysis of ecological data. Version 4. MjM Software Design, Gleneden BeachGoogle Scholar
  35. Minchin PR (1989) DECODA user’s manual. Research School of Pacific Studies. Australian National University, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  36. Mitchell K (2001) Quantitative analysis by the point-centered quarter method. Methods, (Table 11), 34. http://arxiv.org/abs/1010.3303. Accessed 23 Mar 2015
  37. Pacala SW, Canham CD, Silander JA Jr, Kobe RK (1994) Sapling growth as a function of resources in a north temperate forest. Can J For Res 24:2172–2183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Poorter H, Niklas KJ, Reich PB, Oleksyn J, Poot P, Mommer L (2012) Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytol 193:30–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Putz FE, Brokaw NVL (1989) Sprouting of broken trees on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecol 70:508–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Riggins JJ, Hughes M, Smith JA, Mayfield AE III, Balbalian LC, Campbell R (2010) First occurrence of laurel wilt disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola on redbay trees in Mississippi. Plant Dis 94:634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. SAS Institute (2011) SAS version 9.3. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USAGoogle Scholar
  42. Shields J, Jose S, Freeman J, Bunyan M, Celis G, Hagan D, Morgan M, Pieterson EC, Zak J (2011) Short-term impacts of laurel wilt on redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng.) in a mixed evergreen-deciduous forest in northern Florida. J For 109:82–88Google Scholar
  43. Spiegel KS, Leege LM (2013) Impacts of laurel wilt disease on redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) population structure and forest communities in the coastal plain of Georgia, USA. Biol Invasions 15:2467–2487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. USDA Forest Service (2015) Forest health protection, Southern Region, Laurel Wilt History. http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/foresthealth/laurelwilt/history.shtml. Accessed 10 Mar 2015
  45. Van Deelen TR (1991) Persea borbonia. In: Fire effects information system [Online]Google Scholar
  46. Vesk PA (2006) Plant size and sprouting ability: trading tolerance and avoidance of damage? J Ecol 94:1027–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Biology, Life Sciences IISouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA

Personalised recommendations