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User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 35–74 | Cite as

Gamification, quantified-self or social networking? Matching users’ goals with motivational technology

  • Juho Hamari
  • Lobna Hassan
  • Antonio Dias
Article
  • 916 Downloads

Abstract

Systems and services we employ in our daily life have increasingly been augmented with motivational designs which fall under the classes of (1) gamification, (2) quantified-self and (3) social networking features that aim to help users reach their goals via motivational enforcement. However, users differ in terms of their orientation and focus toward goals and in terms of the attributes of their goals. Therefore, different classes of motivational design may have a differential fit for users. Being able to distinguish the goal profiles of users, motivational design could be better tailored. Therefore, in this study we investigate how different goal foci (outcome and focus), goals orientation (mastery, proving, and avoiding), and goal attributes (specificity and difficulty) are associated with perceived importance of gamification, social networking and quantified-self features. We employ survey data (\(\mathrm{N}=167\)) from users of HeiaHeia; a popular exercise encouragement app. Results indicate that goal-setting related factors of users and attributes of goals are connected with users’ preference over motivational design classes. In particular, the results reveal that being outcome-focused is associated with positive evaluations of gamification and quantified-self design classes. Users with higher proving-orientation perceived gamification and social networking design classes as more important, users with lower goal avoidance-orientation perceived social networking design as more important, whereas users with higher mastery-orientation perceived quantified-self design more important. Users with difficult goals were less likely to perceive gamification and social networking design important, whereas for users with high goal specificity quantified-self features were important. The findings provide insights for the automatic adaptation of motivational designs to users’ goals. However, more research is naturally needed to further investigate generalizability of the results.

Keywords

Gamification Quantified-self Social networking Goal-setting Goal orientation Motivational information system 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Finnish foundation for economic education (10-5562 and 12-6385), Hanken support foundation, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation TEKES (40111/14, 40107/14 and 40009/16) and participating partners, as well as Satakunnan korkeakoulusäätiö and its collaborators. The authors wish to also express their gratitude to the editors and reviewers for the fair, rigorous and meaningful review process.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gamification Group, Laboratory of Pervasive Computing, Computing and Electrical EngineeringTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland
  2. 2.Gamification Group, Digital Media, Faculty of HumanitiesUniversity of TurkuPoriFinland
  3. 3.Gamification Group, Tampere Research Center for Information and Media, Faculty of Communication SciencesUniversity of TampereTampereFinland
  4. 4.Information Systems Sciences, Department of Management and OrganizationHanken School of EconomicsHelsinkiFinland
  5. 5.Department of Information and Service EconomyAalto University School of BusinessAaltoFinland

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