Fifteen years of constraint-based tutors: what we have achieved and where we are going

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11257-011-9105-9

Cite this article as:
Mitrovic, A. User Model User-Adap Inter (2012) 22: 39. doi:10.1007/s11257-011-9105-9


Fifteen years ago, research started on SQL-Tutor, the first constraint-based tutor. The initial efforts were focused on evaluating Constraint-Based Modeling (CBM), its effectiveness and applicability to various instructional domains. Since then, we extended CBM in a number of ways, and developed many constraint-based tutors. Our tutors teach both well- and ill-defined domains and tasks, and deal with domain- and meta-level skills. We have supported mainly individual learning, but also the acquisition of collaborative skills. Authoring support for constraint-based tutors is now available, as well as mature, well-tested deployment environments. Our current research focuses on building affect-sensitive and motivational tutors. Over the period of fifteen years, CBM has progressed from a theoretical idea to a mature, reliable and effective methodology for developing effective tutors.


Constraint-based modeling Constraint-based tutors Authoring Affective modeling Metacognitive skills Collaborative learning 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Intelligent Computer Tutoring Group, Department of Computer Science and Software EngineeringUniversity of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand

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