Discontinuation of antiviral prophylaxis increased the risk of hepatitis B virus reactivation in glomerulonephritis patients under immunotherapy: a real-life observation
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Antiviral prophylaxis is proved to be effective in reducing the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients under immunotherapy. But outcomes referring to discontinuation of antiviral prophylaxis in these patients are lacking.
We performed a retrospective study of 105 HBsAg-positive patients under immunotherapy for glomerulonephritis and evaluated the incidence and risk factors for HBV reactivation.
Among 105 patients, 55.24% completed antiviral prophylaxis, while 20.00% discontinued and 24.76% rejected antiviral prophylaxis. HBV reactivation was significantly different among completion, discontinuation, and rejection of antiviral prophylaxis: 5.17% versus 38.10% versus 15.38% in the incidence of HBV reactivation (P = 0.001), 3.45% versus 23.81% versus 11.54% in HBV DNA ≥ 5 Log copies/ml (P = 0.023), and 0 versus 14.29% versus 3.85% in hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion from negative to positive (P = 0.014). Survival curve showed the median occurrence time of HBV reactivation in discontinuation group was 32 months (95% CI 24–39 months), earlier than 69 months (95% CI 65–72 months) of completion group and 43 months (95% CI 37–49 months) of rejection group (χ2 = 13.780, P = 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analysis identified two independent risk factors for HBV reactivation: baseline HBV DNA detectable (OR 5.009, 95% CI 1.717–16.335, P = 0.012) and discontinuation of antiviral prophylaxis (OR 5.213, 95% CI 1.688–18.105, P = 0.011).
Discontinuation of antiviral prophylaxis increased the risk of HBV reactivation in HBsAg-positive patients under immunotherapy for glomerulonephritis.
KeywordsHBV reactivation Immunotherapy Antiviral prophylaxis HBsAg-positive Glomerulonephritis
The authors thank the many physicians who cared for the patients described in this report, including Drs. Yanfang Yang, Zhao Tan, Zhihong Xu, Li Zhuo, Gumin Zou, and the nursing staff of nephrology department.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest.