Effect of socio-demographic factors on endogenous biomarkers (cystatin C and creatinine) among elderly chronic kidney disease patients: a cross-sectional study

  • Irfanullah Khan
  • Amer Hayat Khan
  • Azreen Syazril Adnan
  • Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman
  • Azhar Bin Amir Hamzah
  • Nafees Ahmed
  • Amjad Khan
Nephrology - Original Paper
  • 65 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Creatinine is normally used to evaluate kidney function among elderly patients in clinical practice, which has been reported to be affected by socio-demographic factors like BMI and age. Cystatin C a newly introduced biomarker may be more efficient in identifying kidney function in obese and aged CKD patients. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of BMI on endogenous biomarkers (cystatin C and creatinine) among elderly CKD patients in Malaysia, a first such study in the country.

Methods

The current study was conducted at the Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. A total of 300 elderly Malay participants ≥ 65 years, with CKD, were taken in study. Demographic data, blood pressure, weight, and height were documented. Serum creatinine was assayed by Chemistry Analyzer Model Architect-C8000 (Jaffe Method), while serum cystatin C was examined by Human cystatin C ELISA kit (Sigma-Aldrich) using Thermo Scientific Varioskan Flash ELISA reader.

Results

The study participants were divided into three groups on the basis of age. There was a statistically significant difference at the p value < 0.05 in serum creatinine level for the three age groups [F (2, 297) = 1.98, p value 0.045]. Patients were divided into four groups on the basis of BMI. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference at the p value < 0.05 in the mean serum creatinine level for the four groups [F (3, 396) = 2.99, p value 0.032]. However, no statistically significant differences between mean serum cystatin C levels were observed on the basis of patient’s age and BMI.

Conclusion

Cystatin C is not related to BMI and age among elderly chronic kidney disease patients. The study clearly evaluates the role of serum cystatin C as a good competitor of creatinine among the elderly CKD patients.

Keywords

Cystatin C Creatinine Estimated GFR 

Notes

Author contribution

All authors contributed in a professional way. IK collected the data and wrote the manuscript. AHK and ASA reviewed the manuscript. SASS and ABAH helped in English editing, while NA and AK shared their clinical expertise in the preparation of manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interests.

Human and animal rights statement

The study was approved by Human Resource Ethics Committee Jawatankuasa Etika Penyelidikan-Manusia (JEPeM) of HUSM (USM/JEPeM/1311553).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irfanullah Khan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amer Hayat Khan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Azreen Syazril Adnan
    • 2
  • Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman
    • 1
  • Azhar Bin Amir Hamzah
    • 4
  • Nafees Ahmed
    • 3
  • Amjad Khan
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Chronic Kidney Disease Resource Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Health CampusUniversity Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of PharmacyUniversity of BalochistanQuettaPakistan
  4. 4.Urology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Health CampusUniversity Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia
  5. 5.Department of PharmacyQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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