International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 289–299 | Cite as

Gut microbiota and chronic kidney disease: implications for novel mechanistic insights and therapeutic strategies

Nephrology - Review


The complicated communities of microbiota colonizing the human gastrointestinal tract exert a strong function in health maintenance and disease prevention. Indeed, accumulating evidence has indicated that the intestinal microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Modulation of the gut microbiome composition in CKD may contribute to the accumulation of gut-derived uremic toxins, high circulating level of lipopolysaccharides and immune deregulation, all of which play a critical role in the pathogenesis of CKD and CKD-associated complications. In this review, we discuss the recent findings on the potential impact of gut microbiota in CKD and the underlying mechanisms by which microbiota can influence kidney diseases and vice versa. Additionally, the potential efficacy of pre-, pro- and synbiotics in the restoration of healthy gut microbia is described in detail to provide future directions for research.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Intestinal microbiota Uremic toxins Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) Immune deregulation Prebiotic Probiotics 



Blood urea nitrogen


Chronic kidney disease


Cardiovascular disease




End-stage kidney disease


Glomerular filtration rate


Gastrointestinal tract


Glucagon-like peptide 1






Indoxyl sulfate




Natural killer T


P-cresyl sulfate


Peptide YY


Resistant starch


Short-chain fatty acids



We thank Yue Cai for critical review and important intellectual contributions to the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exists.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Foreign Languages and CulturesKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina
  2. 2.Medical FacultyKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina
  3. 3.Genetics and Pharmacogenomics LaboratoryKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina

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