Effect of different blend levels of spineless cactus and Mombasa hay as roughage on intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, and performance of lambs

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the best level of the blend of spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera) and Mombasa (Panicum maximum) hay as roughage in the diet of lambs based on intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, and lamb performance. Forty-eight uncastrated crossbred Santa Ines breed lambs with an average age of 4 months old and an average initial BW of 20.5 kg ± 2.8 kg were distributed in two experiments using a completely randomized design: experiment 1: 16 lambs (four treatments and four replicates) for in vivo digestibility trial in metabolic cage; experiment 2: 32 lambs (four treatments and eight replicates) in feedlot to determine intake, ingestive behavior, and performance. As the amount of cactus in the roughage increased, there was a linear reduction (P <0.001) on intake (g/day) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) digestibility, time spent ruminating, feeding efficiency of NDF (P = 0.0153), NDF rumination efficiency rate (P = 0.032), final BW, TWG, and ADG of lamb. However, there was a linear increase (P <0.001) on the intake of the NFC and TDN, digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, total carbohydrates (TC) and NDF gross energy, metabolizable energy, and time spent idling when spineless cactus increased in the roughage blend. The least amount of cactus in the roughage (112–637 g/kg DM) promoted higher intake of DM and CP, improving lamb performance. However, the blend up to 450–300 g/kg DM improved digestibility and energy production as well as it did not affect the feed efficiency.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Albuquerque, I., Araújo, G., Santos, F., Carvalho, G., Santos, E., Nobre, I., Bezerra, L., Silva-Júnior, J., Silva-Filho, E., and Oliveira, R. 2020. Performance, body water balance, ingestive behavior and blood metabolites in goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller) silage subjected to an intermittent water supply. Sustainability, 12, 2881. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072881

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Alves, F.A.L., Andrade A.P., Bruno, R.L.A., and Santos, D.C. 2016. Study of the variability, correlation and importance of chemical and nutritional characteristics in cactus pear (Opuntia and Nopalea). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11, 2882–2892. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2016.11025

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. AOAC. 2012. Official methods of analysis. 19th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Batista, A.M., Mustafa, A.F., McAllister, T., Wang, Y., Soita, H., and McKinnon, J.J. 2003. Effects of variety on chemical composition, in situ nutrient disappearance and in vitro gas production of spineless cacti. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83, 440-445. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1393

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Batista, J.N., Pereira, F.B., Pereira Filho, J.M., Lima, V., Santos, V.L.F., Araújo, M.J., Moura, J.F.P., Pereira, E.S., Oliveira, R.L., and Bezerra, L.R. 2020. Replacing corn bran and soybean meal in the diet with spineless cactus and cottonseed affects ingestive behaviour, performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Murrah water buffalo. Animal Production Science, 60, 903–912. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1071/AN19260

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Blaxter, K.L. 1962. The energy metabolism of ruminants. London: Hutchinson & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bürger, P.J., Pereira, J.C., Queiroz, A.C., Silva, J.F.C., Valadares Filho, S.C., Cecon, P.R., and Casali, A.D.P. 2000. Ingestive behavior in Holstein calves fed diets with different concentrate levels. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 29, 236–242. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982000000100031.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Campos, F.S., Carvalho, G.G.P., Santos, E.M., Araújo, G.G.L., Gois, G.C., Rebouças, R.A., Leão, A.G., Santos, S.A., Oliveira, J.S., Leite, L.C., Araújo, M.L.G.M.L., Cirne, L.G.A., Silva, R.R., and Carvalho, B.M.A. 2017. Influence of diets with silage from forage plants adapted to the semi-arid conditions on lamb quality and sensory attributes. Meat Science, 124, 61–68. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.10.011.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Cordova-Torres, A.V., Mendoza-Mendoza, J.C., Bernal-Santos, G., García-Gasca, T., Kawas, J.R., Costa, R.G., Mondragon, J.C, and Andrade-Montemayor, H.M. 2015. Nutritional composition, in vitro degradability and gas production of Opuntia ficus indica and four other wild cacti species. Life Science Journal, 12, 42–54.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Cordova-Torres, A.V., Costa, R.G., Medeiros, A.N., Araújo Filho, J.T., Ramos, A.O., and Alves, N.L. 2017. Performance of sheep fed forage cactus with total water restriction. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, 18, 369–377.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Costa, R.G., Treviño, I.H., Medeiros, G.R., Medeiros, A.N., Pinto, T.F., and Oliveira, R.L. 2012. Effects of replacing corn with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica Mill) on the performance of Santa Inês lambs. Small Ruminant Research, 102, 13–17. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.09.012

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Costa, J.B., Oliveira, R.L., Silva, T.M., Ribeiro, R.D., Silva, A.M., Leão, A.G., Bezerra, L.R., and Rocha, T.C. 2016. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, performance, and carcass yield of lambs fed licuri cake. Journal of Animal Science, 94, 2973–2980. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2015-0143

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Gouveia, J.S.S., Oliveira, V.S., Santos, G.R.A., Melo, K.D.A., Oliveira, A.G., and Melo, M.V.A. 2016. Partial replacement of corn by forage cactus in the diets of lactating goats. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 37, 969–976. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2016v37n2p969

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Knupp, L.S., Carvalho, F.F.R., Cannas, A., Marcondes, M.I., Silva, A.L., Francesconi, A.H.D., Beltrão da Cruz, G.R., Atzori, A.S., Gaspa, G., and Costa, R.G. 2019. Meta-analysis of spineless cactus feeding to meat lambs: Performance and development of mathematical models to predict dry matter intake and average daily gain. Animal, 13, 2260–2267. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000326

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Leite, M.L.M.V., Silva, D.S., and Andrade, A.P. 2014. Characterization of forage cactus production in the cariri region of Paraiba state – Brazil. Revista Caatinga, 27, 192–200.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Leite, J.R.A., Sales, E.C J, Monção, F.P., Guimarães, A.S., Rigueira, J.P.S., and Gomes, V. M. 2018. Nopalea cactus pear fertilized with nitrogen: morphometric, productive and nutritional characteristics. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 40, e38325. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v40i1.38325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Lins, S.E.B., Pessoa, R.A., Ferreira, M.A., Campos, J.M.S., Silva, J.A.B.A., Santos, S.A., Silva, J.L., Melo, T.T.B., and Chagas, J.C.C. 2017. Effect of replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus plus urea in sugarcane-based diets for sheep. South African Journal of Animal Science, 47, 516–525. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v47i4.10

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Lopes, A.S., Torres, F.E., Fanaya Júnior, E.D., Silva Neto, A.A., Margatto, A.R.A., and Kraeski, M.J. 2016. Productivity of forage grasses at different times under irrigation. Revista Ciências Agrárias, 59, 173-180.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Martin, P., and Bateson, P. 1993. Measuring behaviour. 2nd edn., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 222 p.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Mertens, D.R. 1994. Regulation of forage intake. In: Fahey Jr, G. C., Collins, M., eds. Forage quality, evaluation, and utilization. Madison: American Society of Agronomy, 450-493.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Nascimento, K.S., Edvan, R.L., Ezequiel, F.L.S., Azevedo, F.L., Barros, L.S., Araújo, M.J., Bezerra, L.R., and Biagiotti, D. 2020. Morphological and morphometric characteristics, drying rate, and chemical composition of forage grasses grown for hay production. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 41, 1037–1046. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n3p1037

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. NRC. 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids and New World Camelids. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Robertson, J.B., and Van Soest, P.J. 1981. The detergent system of analysis and its application to human food. W.P.T. James, O. Theander (Eds.), The Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Food, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, pp. 123–158.

  24. SAS Institute. 2014. SAS Systems for Windows User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Silva, A.P.G., Souza, C.C.E., Ribeiro, J.E.S., Santos, M.C.G., Pontes, A.L.D.S., and Madruga, M.S. 2015. Physical, chemical and bromatological characteristics of the giant forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) and small forage cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera) from Paraíba state (Brazil). Revista Brasileira de Tecnologia Agroindustrial, 9, 1810–1820.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Silva, T.M., Oliveira, R.L., Nascimento Junior, N.G., Pellegrini, C.B., Trajano, J.S., Rocha, T.C., and Bezerra, L.R., Borja, M.S. 2016a. Ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of goats fed diets containing peanut cake from biodiesel. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 48, 59–66. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-015-0920-6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Silva, C.M., Araújo, G.G.L., Oliveira, B.Y.S., Azevêdo, J.A.G., and Furtado, D.A. 2016b. Performance and economic viability of feedlot sheep fed different levels of roughage, concentrate, and water. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 37, 1595–1606. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2016v37n3p1595

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Sniffen, C.J., O’connor, J.D., Van Soest, P.J., Fox, D.G., and Russel, J.B. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. II carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Dairy Science, 70, 3562–3577. doi: https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.70113562x.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Toro-Mujica, P., Aguilar, C., Vera, R., Rivas, J., and García, A. 2015. Sheep production systems in the semi-arid zone: Changes and simulated bio-economic performances in a case study in Central Chile. Livestock Science, 180, 209–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2015.07.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Van Soest, P.J. 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd edn. New York: Cornell University Press, 476p.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B., and Lewis, B.A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polyssacharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583–3597. doi: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This research was financially supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq-Brazil) and by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES-Brazil) from the regents and from scholarships for students.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tairon Pannunzio Dias-Silva.

Ethics declarations

All experimental procedures were carried out following the recommendations of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching, and the protocol was submitted to the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Campina Grande and approved (Protocol number 113-2018).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Beltrão, E.S., de Azevedo Silva, A.M., Filho, J.M.P. et al. Effect of different blend levels of spineless cactus and Mombasa hay as roughage on intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, and performance of lambs. Trop Anim Health Prod 53, 140 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02585-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Alternative feed
  • Average daily gain
  • Dry matter intake
  • Semiarid
  • Sheep