The frequency of Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected from a total of 1150 samples including food (n = 300), livestock (n = 50), and human clinical (n = 800) was evaluated during 2008–2016. Antimicrobial resistance patterns, virulence factors, and molecular characteristics of these isolates were analyzed using disk diffusion method, sequencing, serotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis of 44 L. monocytogenes isolates showed that 72.7% (32 of 44) of all the isolates belonged to Serotype 1/2c, and 15.9% (7 of 44) belonged to Serotype 3c. All 44 isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents with the most frequent resistance to penicillin (75%) and tetracycline (47.7%). Of the 44 L. monocytogenes strains, 100, 69.2, and 62.5% of livestock, human, and food strains were resistant to penicillin, respectively. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique, the isolates’ genetic diversity was determined, and 28 PFGE patterns with 8 common (CT) and 20 single types (ST) were identified. This study highlights the high prevalence of Serotype 1/2c in clinical and livestock samples, while different serotypes were observed in food samples. The presence of rare serotypes such as 4c, belonging to the Lineage III, as well as 4e and 1/2c which are infrequent in Iran indicates that paying attention to uncommon serotypes, especially 1/2c, during the listeriosis outbreaks is necessary.
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The authors have a special thanks to the staff of Urmia Healthcare Center and Ph.D student of Iran University of Medical Sciences Mrs. Narimani.
This study was supported by Cellular and Molecular Research Centers of Urmia University of Medical Sciences.
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Heidarlo, M.N., Lotfollahi, L., Yousefi, S. et al. Analysis of virulence genes and molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human, food, and livestock from 2008 to 2016 in Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod 53, 127 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02569-7
- Listeria monocytogenes
- Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis