Characterization of microbes associated with cervico-vaginal adhesion in the reproductive system of camels (Camelus dromedaries)

Abstract

Vaginal and cervical adhesions are severe long-standing reproductive disorder in dromedaries and consequently result in a high culling rate. This study was designed to compare the microbial communities of the vaginae, cervices, and uteri of normal (n = 10) camels versus camels suffering from cervico-vaginal adhesion (n = 23). Vaginal, cervical, and uterine swab samples were collected from control and affected animals. Furthermore, serum samples were obtained for serological testing of Chlamydiosis and Coxiellosis. For bacteriological and fungal examination, swab samples were plated on Columbia and Saboraud’s dextrose agar, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was applied to samples expressed seropositive for Chlamydiosis. Vaginal swab bacterial cultures showed that the affected animals were significantly infected with Staphylococcus aureus (P = 0.0322, CI: 0.25–0.95) than the control, while mycological cultures showed that both control and affected animals were infected with Cryptococcus and Candida albicans. Corynebacterium spp. (22.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (4.5%), Klebsiella spp. (9.1%), T. pyogenes (18.2%), and anaerobic bacteria (Fusobacterium necrophorum and Clostridium spp.; 34.78%) were also identified in affected animals. Cervical samples from affected animals were distinguished by the existence of S. aureus (27.8%), Klebsiella spp. (5.6%), Corynebacterium spp. (22.2%), Cryptococcus (16.7%), Proteus spp. (11.1% (, T. pyogenes (11.1%), Pseudomonas spp. (5.6%), and Fusobacterium necrophorum (17.4%). Uterine samples from affected animals were characterized by the presence of S. aureus (22.2%), Streptococcus (22.2%), Corynebacterium spp. (11.1%), E. coli (11.1%), and Pseudomonas spp. (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were not isolated from control nor affected animals. Enzyme immunoassays revealed that 50% and 34.8% of the control and affected animals were positive for Coxiella burnetii, respectively, Chlamydia was detected in 43.5% of samples from affected animals, only 60% of which were confirmed positive. These results show that microbial communities linked with cervico-vaginal adhesion in dromedary camels are likely to be polymicrobial. The findings of this study are helpful in designing antimicrobial therapies toward reducing the incidence for cervico-vaginal adhesion.

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The authors would like to acknowledge the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal University for their financial support under the annual research support track (Grant No. 140002).

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Ghoneim, I.M., AL-Ahmad, J.A., Fayez, M.M. et al. Characterization of microbes associated with cervico-vaginal adhesion in the reproductive system of camels (Camelus dromedaries). Trop Anim Health Prod 53, 132 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02538-6

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Keywords

  • Camels
  • Cervix
  • Vagina
  • Adhesion
  • Microbiology