Adoption and failure rates of vaccinations for disease prevention in chicken farms in Jos, Nigeria

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Abstract

Vaccinations against diseases to prevent disease outbreaks are strategic to disease prevention, but vaccination failures may constitute a challenge in practice. This study was aimed at assessing the adoption and failure rates of vaccinations in 80 chicken farms in Jos, Nigeria. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire validated by interviews and checking of farm and veterinary records. Vaccination score (0–1) from the vaccination checklist (5 for broilers and 12 for layers) and vaccination procedure score (0–1), based on scored adopted procedures, were calculated for each farm. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated for each vaccine using the odds ratio from the association of frequencies of disease outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. Farmers used more of imported than local vaccines. Vaccination procedure and vaccination scores did not influence frequencies of disease outbreaks, but vaccination scores tended to non-robustly correlate (r = − 0.89, p > 0.05) with rates of disease outbreak. Vaccination rates were highest against Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease, and their vaccinations also had the highest effectiveness. There was an association (p = 0.009) between composite vaccination rates and disease outbreaks with 2.1 odds of outbreaks in vaccinated than unvaccinated flocks. Vaccination failures occurred in the use of 11 out of 12 vaccines and the highest failure rate (47.9%) was in vaccination against coccidiosis. Therefore, vaccination failure is a critical factor in poultry vaccination practice within the locality. The adoption of poultry vaccinations needs to be strategised in the context of a national poultry vaccination policy in order to promote effective poultry disease prevention and control.

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Acknowledgments

We express our sincere thanks to the poultry farms and farmers that participated in the study.

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Correspondence to I. O. Igbokwe.

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Igbokwe, I.O., Maduka, C.V., Igbokwe, N.A. et al. Adoption and failure rates of vaccinations for disease prevention in chicken farms in Jos, Nigeria. Trop Anim Health Prod (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02335-1

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Keywords

  • Disease outbreak
  • Disease prevention
  • Poultry diseases
  • Vaccination adoption and failure
  • Vaccine effectiveness
  • Nigeria