Risk factors associated with the seroprevalence of paratuberculosis in sheep flocks in the hot-arid region of Sonora, México

Abstract

Paratuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), a chronic disease of a negative economic impact on sheep production. In the state of Sonora, Mexico, there are no reports on the prevalence of MAP in sheep and risk factors associated with it. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of MAP and risk factors associated by testing antibody-positive in sheep flocks located in the arid and hot region of Sonora, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2012 to December 2014, in 43 flocks. Serum samples from 1178 individual sheep were obtained to detect antibodies against MAP by immunodiffusion in agar-gel. During blood sampling, information about animal and flock management risk factors were obtained by applying a questionnaire to the owners. Risk factors associated with seroprevalence of MAP were estimated using binary logistic regression. The true prevalence of MAP was 7.48% (95% CI 5.98, 8.98) and 53.5% of flocks had at least one seropositive animal. An animal was more likely to be seropositive if it was from a large flock (> 300 animals; OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.24, 9.99) and was born outside the farm (OR 6.24; 95% CI 2.9-1, 3.52). This is the first report of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis seroprevalence in sheep, in Sonora, Mexico. Large flocks and the entry of new animals to the flock were critical risk factors associated with MAP seropositivity.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the staff of the CENID in microbiology of the INIFAP for the access to the laboratory, facilities, knowledge and human resource, the support and reliability of the sheep producers of Sonora state, the students of veterinary medicine of the Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora, and veterinarians who participated and were involved during field trips.

Funding

The study was derived from a national project with fiscal resources of SAGARPA (Resource No. 4217239P during 2010–2013) and complemented by Fundacion Produce in the state of Sonora (2013–2014). The CONACyT grant with a scholarship for a doctoral student (2012-2015).

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Correspondence to José Clemente Leyva-Corona.

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The authors declare that the animals of this study were used with the prior consent of each flock owner. Likewise, the procedures in the animals sampled in this study were performed by veterinarians in agreement with the ethical standards written in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki (and its later amendments in 2008) and were approved by a group of researchers of the Department of Agronomic and Veterinary Sciences of the Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora.

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The authors declare to have no conflict of interest.

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Morales-Pablos, M.I., Mejía-Sánchez, P., Díaz-Aparicio, E. et al. Risk factors associated with the seroprevalence of paratuberculosis in sheep flocks in the hot-arid region of Sonora, México. Trop Anim Health Prod 52, 1357–1363 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-02139-y

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Keywords

  • Seropositivity
  • MAP
  • Flock
  • Risk
  • Sheep
  • Sonora