Goats play a major role in poor marginalized communities of South Africa for food security and socio-economic purposes. Majority of the goats are raised in villages with poor infrastructure and resources, therefore facing challenges that affect growth performance which leads to low mature weights. Investigating growth profiles will shed light on growth performances and will aid in goat improvement and selection. This study investigated the growth profiles and genomic structure of SA indigenous breeds raised in different production systems to unravel the genetic potential of indigenous goat populations. Live weights and morphological body measurements were collected from a total of 83 kids representing the commercial meat-producing SA Boer (n = 14); the indigenous veld goats (IVG) of NC Skilder (n = 14), Mbuzi (n = 13), and Xhosa lob (n = 14) raised under intensive systems; and nondescript village goat populations (n = 14) raised in intensive and others (n = 14) raised in extensive production systems. The remaining 72 of 83 phenotyped goats were genotyped using the Illumina Caprine SNP50K BeadChip. The SA Boer had a higher weight (28.96 ± 0.30 kg) gain as compared to other populations. The Mbuzi population was the smallest (14.83 ± 0.33 kg), while the village goats raised in Pella Village were relatively smaller (17.55 ± 0.37 kg) than those raised on the research farm (19.55 ± 0.36 kg). The study concluded that both genetics and management systems can lead to improved growth performance in goat production. The outputs of this study can be used to identify suitable breeds and potential genotypes for optimal growth and establish optimal goat management systems suitable for communal farmers for improved productivity.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Campbell, Q.P., 2003. The origin and description of Southern Africa ’ s indigenous goats. South African Journal of Animal Science 4, 18–22.
Chacón, E., Macedo, F., Velázquez, F., Paiva, S.R., Pineda, E. and McManus, C., 2011. Morphological measurements and body indices for Cuban Creole goats and their crossbreds. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 40, 1671–1679.
Dube, K., Muchenje, V. and Mupangwa, J.F., 2016. Inbreeding depression and simulation of production potential of the communally raised indigenous Xhosa lop eared goats. Small Ruminant Research, 144, 164–169.
Gwaze, F.R., Chimonyo, M. and Dzama, K., 2009. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: A review. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41, 1157–1168.
Khargharia, G., Kadirvel, G., Kumar, S., Doley, S., Bharti, P.K. and Das, M., 2015. Principal component analysis of morphological traits of Assam hill goat in eastern Himalayan India. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 25, 1251-1258.
Lashmar, S.F., Visser, C. and Van Marle-Köster, E., 2015. Validation of the 50 k Illumina goat SNP chip in the South African Angora goats. South African Journal of Animal Sciences, 45, 56–59.
Masika, P.J. and Mafu, J. V., 2004. Aspects of goat farming in the communal farming systems of the central Eastern Cape of South Africa. Small Ruminant Research, 52, 161–164.
Mdladla, K., Dzomba, E.F., Huson, H.J. and Muchadeyi, F.C., 2016. Population genomic structure and linkage disequilibrium analysis of South African goat breeds using genome-wide SNP data. Animal Genetics, 47, 471–482.
Mdladla, K., Dzomba, E.F. and Muchadeyi, F.C., 2017. The potential of landscape genomics approach in the characterization of adaptive genetic diversity in indigenous goat genetic resources: A South African perspective. Small Ruminant Research, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2017.03.015
Moela, A.K., 2014. Assessment Of The Relationship Between Body Weight And Body Measurements In Indigenous Goats Using Path Analysis. MSc dissertation. University of Limpopo, South Africa.
Ncube, K.T., Mdladla, K., Dzomba, E.F. and Muchadeyi, F.C., 2016. Targeted high-throughput growth hormone 1 gene sequencing reveals high within-breed genetic diversity in South African goats. Animal Genetics, 47, 382-385.
Pesmen, G. and Yardimci, M., 2002. Estimating the live weight using some body measurements in Saanen goats. Archiva Zootechnica, 4, 30-40.
Pophiwa, P., Webb, E.C. and Frylinck, L., 2016. Meat quality characteristics of two South African goat breeds after applying electrical stimulation or delayed chilling of carcasses. Small Ruminant Research, 145, 107-114.
Purcell, S., Neale, B., Todd-Brown, K., Thomas, L., Ferreira, M.A.R., Bender, D., Maller, J., Sklar, P., de Bakker, P.I.W., Daly, M.J. and Sham, P.C., 2007. PLINK: A Tool Set for Whole-Genome Association and Population-Based Linkage Analyses. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 81, 559–575.
Simela, L. and Merkel, R., 2008. The contribution of chevon from Africa to global meat production. Meat Science, 80, 101–109.
Snyman, M., 2012. Genetic analysis of body weight in South African Angora kids and young goats. South African Journal of Animal Science, 42, 146-155.
Snyman, M.A., 2014. South African goat breeds. Compiled for the Indigenous veld goat Society, (Pretoria).
Tosser-Klopp, G., Bardou, P., Bouchez, O., Cabau, C., Crooijmans, R., Dong, Y., Donnadieu-Tonon, C., Eggen, A., Heuven, H.C.M., Jamli, S., Jiken, A.J., Klopp, C., Lawley, C.T., McEwan, J., Martin, P., Moreno, C.R., Mulsant, P., Nabihoudine, I., Pailhoux, E., Palhière, I., Rupp, R., Sarry, J., Sayre, B.L., Tircazes, A., Wang, J., Wang, W., Zhang, W., Ajmone, P., Amills, M., Boitard, S., Faraut, T., San Cristobal, M., Servin, B., Chen, W., Cheng, S., Liu, X., Pan, S., Song, C., Xu, X., Ye, C., Zhang, B., Lv, J., Li, Xin, Ren, L., Shi, P., Yu, J., Faruque, O., Lenstra, H., Poli, M.A., Zhao, J., Rui, S., Zhang, Y., Stella, A., Li, Xianglong, Valentini, A. and Zhao, S., 2014. Design and characterization of a 52 K SNP chip for goats. PLoS One 9, e86227.
Visser, C., Hefer, C.A. and Kotze, A., 2004. Genetic variation of three commercial and three indigenous goat populations in South Africa. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34, 24–27.
Visser, C. and van Marle-Köster, E., 2018. The Development and Genetic Improvement of South African Goats Intech open, 2, 64.
The Agricultural Research Council, Biotechnology Platform, and the National Research Foundation funded this study. Ms Ncube was funded through the National Research Foundation Innovation Doctoral Scholarship and Agricultural Research Council, Professional Development Program and the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The Animal Ethics Committee of Agricultural Research Council, Animal Production, South Africa (Ethics approval number “APIEC16/010”), has approved all the work and animal management undertaken in this study.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Ncube, K.T., Hadebe, K., Dzomba, E.F. et al. Relationship between population genomic structure and growth profiles of South African goats under different production systems. Trop Anim Health Prod 52, 1277–1286 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-02128-1
- Growth profiles
- Population structure
- Morphological measurements
- Production systems