This study was conducted to assess the effects of early dietary supplementation with probiotic, yoghurt, and sodium butyrate (SB) on the growth performance, intestinal microbiota, blood hematology, and immune response of broiler chickens. A total of 180 1-day-old SASSO broiler chicks, housed in 12 equal floor pen replicates each of 15 chicks, were assigned randomly to four feeding treatments (three replicates/treatment, n = 45): T1. Basal diet (BD) (control), T2. BD incorporated 1 g of a commercial probiotic per kilogram, T3. BD mixed with 5 g of fresh yoghurt per kilogram, and T4. BD incorporated 0.6 g SB/kg. The experimental birds received the dietary treatments from 1 to 21 days of age. The dietary supplementation (g/kg) with commercial probiotic, yoghurt, and SB during the first 21 days of age did not affect broiler’s growth performance variables at day 42, relative weight of immunity organs, blood hematological indices, or the ileal and cecal bacterial counts at day 42, but increased the serum IgG levels and reduced the cecal aerobes at day 21. The probiotic and yoghurt treatments increased the serum content of antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus and decreased the counts of ileal aerobes and E. coli at day 21, whereas the SB treatment increased the ileal lactobacilli count at day 21. In conclusion, the tested feed additives displayed beneficial impacts on broilers’ gut microbiota at day 21 and serum IgG at day 42, but did not affect the growth performance or blood hematological indices at 42 days of age.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abdelqader, A. and Al-Fataftah, A., 2016. Effect of dietary butyric acid on performance, intestinal morphology, microflora composition and intestinal recovery of heat-stressed broilers, Livestock Science, 183, 78–83.
Abouelezz, K., Abou-Hadied, M., Yuan, J., Elokil, A., Wang, G., Wang, S., Wang, J. and Bian, G., 2019. Nutritional impacts of dietary oregano and Enviva essential oils on the performance, gut microbiota and blood biochemicals of growing ducks, Animal, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000508.
Adolfsson, O., Meydani S.N. and Russell, R.M., 2004. Yoghurt and gut function, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 245–256.
Ahsan, U., Cengiz, O., Raza, I., Kuter, E., Chacher, M.F.A., Iqbal, Z., Umar, S. and Cakir, S., 2016. Sodium butyrate in chicken nutrition: the dynamics of performance, gut microbiota, gut morphology, and immunity, World’s Poultry Science Journal, 72, 265–275.
Attia, Y.A., Abd El-Hamid, A.E., Ellakany, H.F., Bovera, F., Al-Harthi, M.A. and Ghazaly, S.A., 2013. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid, Italian Journal of Animal Science, 12, 2. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2013.e37.
Attia, Y.A., Abd Al-Hamid, A.E., Allakany, H.F., Al-Harthi, M.A. and Mohamed, N.A., 2016. Necessity of continuing of supplementation of non-nutritive feed additive during day 21-42 of age following three weeks of feeding aflatoxin to broiler chickens, Journal of Applied Animal Research, 44, 87–98.
Bai, S., Wu, A., Ding, X., Lei, Y., Bai, J., Zhang, K. and Chio, J., 2013. Effects of probiotic supplemented diets on growth performance and intestinal immune characteristics of broiler chickens, Poultry Science, 92, 663–670.
Bajagai, Y.S., 2017. Impact of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens probiotic strain H57 on the intestinal microbiota and broiler performance, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Australia.
Bohoua, G.L., 2008. Effect of palm wine yeasts and yogurt probiotics on the growth performance of broilers, Livestock Research for Rural Development, 20, 47.
Boostani, A., Fard, M.H.R., Ashayerizadeh, A. and Aminafshar, M., 2013. Growth performance, carcass yield and intestinal microflora populations of broilers fed diets containing thepax and yogurt, Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 15, 1–6.
Cao, G.T., Zeng, X.F., Chen, A.G., Zhou, L., Zhang, L., Xiao, Y.P. and Yang, C.M., 2013. Effects of a probiotic, Enterococcus faecium, on growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune response, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88, Poultry Science, 92, 2949–2955.
Chamba, F., Puyalto, M., Ortiz, A., Torrealba, H., Mallo, J.J. and Riboty, R., 2014. Effect of partially protected sodium butyrate on performance, digestive organs, intestinal villi and E. coli development in broilers chickens, International Journal of Poultry Science, 13, 390–396.
Chawla, S., Katoch, S., Sharma, K. and Sharma, V., 2013. Biological response of broiler supplemented with varying dose of direct fed microbial, Veterinary World, 6, 521–524.
Czerwiński, J,, Højberg, O., Smulikowska, S., Engberg, R.M. and Mieczkowska, A., 2012. Effects of sodium butyrate and salinomycin upon intestinal microbiota, mucosal morphology and performance of broiler chickens, Archives of Animal Nutrition, 66, 102–16.
Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F-Tests, Biometrics, 11, 1–42.
Eshak, M.G., Elmenawey, M.A., Atta, A., Gharib, H.B., Shalaby, B. and Awaad, M.H.H., 2016. The efficacy of Na-butyrate encapsulated in palm fat on performance of broilers infected with necrotic enteritis with gene expression analysis, Veterinary World, 9, 450–7.
FAO, 2016. Probiotics in animal nutrition – Production, impact and regulation by Yadav S. Bajagai, Athol V. Klieve, Peter J. Dart and Wayne L. Bryden. Editor Harinder P.S. Makkar. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 179.: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.
Fudge, A.M., 2000. Avian complete blood count. In: Laboratory medicine-avian and exotic pets. (Fudge A. M., Ed.), WB Saunders company, Philadelphia, USA, 9–18.
Goudswaard, J., Noordzij, A. and Vaerman, J.P., 1977. The immunoglobulins of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Isolation and characterization of IgG, IgM and IgA in body fluids, eggs and intraocular tissues, Poultry science, 56, 1847–1851.
Haque, M.I., Ahmad, N. and Miah, M.A., 2017. Comparative analysis of body weight and serum biochemistry in broilers supplemented with some selected probiotics and antibiotic growth promoters, Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, 4, 288–294.
Hernandez, J., Afandor, G., Ariza-Nieto, C. and Avellaneda, Y., 2013. Evaluation of coated and powder sodium butyrate in diets for broilers reared with reused litter during a commercial production cycle, Journal of Animal Science, 91, 335.
Houndonougbo, M.F., Chrysostome, C.A.A.M. and Zlao Z., 2011. Tchoukoutou residue and yogurt as feed additives in broilers feed, Research opinions in Animal and Veterinary sciences, 1, 597–600.
Kamboh, A., Hang, S., Khan, M. and Zhu, W., 2016. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of plant flavonoids in lipopolysaccharide-challenged broilers, Animal, 10, 1619–1625.
Landy, N. and Kavyani, A., 2013. Effects of using a multi-strain probiotic on performance, immune responses and cecal microflora composition in broiler chickens reared under cyclic heat stress condition, Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 3, 703–708.
Mahdavi, R. and Torki, M., 2009. Study on usage period of dietary protected butyric acid on performance, carcass characteristics, serum metabolite levels and humoral immune response of broiler chickens, Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances, 8, 1702–1709.
Mahmmod, Z.A., Abdulrazaq, H.S., Salem, A.S., Sideq, R.H., 2014. Effects of supplementation probiotic and dried yogurt powder on growth performance, carcass characteristics, intestinal micro flora and immunity of broiler chickens, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 26, 35–42.
Mallo, J.J., Puyalto, M. and Rao, R.S.V., 2012. Evaluation of the effect of sodium butyrate addition to broiler diet on energy and protein digestibility productive parameters and size of intestinal villi of animals, Feed and Livestock, 8, 26–30.
Mansoub, N.H., 2011. Comparative effect of butyric acid, probiotic and garlic on performance and serum composition of broilers chickens, American Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 11, 507–511.
Mashayekhi, H., Mazhari, M. and Esmaeilipour, O., 2018. Eucalyptus leaves powder, antibiotic and probiotic addition to broiler diets: Effect on growth performance, immune response, blood components and carcass traits, Animal, 12, 2049–2055.
Monoura, P., Rahman, M., Khan, M.F.R., Rahman, M.B. and Rahman, M.M., 2008. Effect of vitamins, minerals and probiotics on production of antibody and live weight gain following vaccination with BCRDV in broiler birds, Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 6, 31–36.
Mookiah, S., Sieo, C.C., Ramsamy, K., Abdullah, N. and YW, H.O., 2014. Effects of dietary prebiotics, probiotic and synbiotics on performance, caecal bacterial populations and caecal fermentation concentrations of broiler chickens, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94, 341–348.
Moquet, P.C.A., Onrust, L., Van Immerseel, F., Ducatelle, R., Hendriks, W.H. and Kwakkel, R.P., 2016. Importance of release location on the mode of action of butyrate derivatives in the avian gastrointestinal tract, World's Poultry Science Journal, 72, 61–80.
Mountzouris, K., Tsitrsikos, P., Palmidi, I., Arvaniti, A., Mohnl, M., Schatzmayr, G. and Fegeros, K., 2010. Effects of probiotic inclusion levels in broiler nutrition on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma immunoglobulins, and cecal microflora composition, Poultry Science, 89, 58–67.
OIE, 2004. Avian influenza. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/mmanual/A_00037.html. Accessed 21 January 2018.
Olnood, C.G., Beski, S.S.M., Choct, M. and Iji, P.A., 2015 . Novel probiotics: Their effects on growth performance, gut development, microbial community and activity of broiler chickens, Animal Nutrition, 1, 184–191.
Qaisrani, S.N., Van Krimpen, M.M., Kwakkel, R.P., Verstegen, M.W.A. and Hendriks, W.H., 2015. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers, Poultry Science, 94, 2152–2164.
Ravindran, V., 2003. Development of digestive function in neonatal poultry: physiological limitations and potential, Proceedings of the 15th Annual Australian Poultry Science Symposium, Sydney, Australia, 1–7.
Shim, Y., Ingale, S,, Kim, J., Kim, K., Seo, D., Lee, S., Chae, B. and Kwon, I., 2012. A multi-microbe probiotic formulation processed at low and high drying temperatures: effects on growth performance, nutrient retention and caecal microbiology of broilers, British Poultry Science, 53, 482–490.
Sikandar, A., Zaneb, H., Younus, M., Masood, S., Aslam, A., Khattak, F., Ashraf, S., Yousaf, M.S. and Rehman, H., 2017. Effect of sodium butyrate on performance, immune status, microarchitecture of small intestinal mucosa and lymphoid organs in broiler chickens, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 30, 690–699.
Sunkara, L.T., Achanta, M., Schreiber, N.B., Bommineni, Y.R., Dai, G., Jiang, W., Lamont, S., Lillehoj, H.S., Beker, A., Teeter, R.G. and Zhang, G., 2011. Butyrate enhances disease resistance of chickens by inducing antimicrobial host defense peptide gene expression, PLoS One 6, e27225. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027225. Accessed 21 January 2018.
Thayer, S.G. and Beard, C.W., 1998. Serologic procedures. In: Swayne, D.E., Ed., A Laboratory Manual for the Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens, 4th Edition, American Association of Avian Pathologists, Philadelphia, 256–258.
Van Immerseel, F., Fievez, V., De Buck, J., Pasmans, F., Martel, A., Haesebrouck, F. and Ducatelle, R., 2004. Microencapsulated short-chain fatty acids in feed modify colonization and invasion early after infection with Salmonella Enteritidis in young chickens, Poultry Science, 83, 69–74.
Wu, W., Xiao, Z., An, W., Dong, Y. and Zhang, B., 2018. Dietary sodium butyrate improves intestinal development and function by modulating the microbial community in broilers. PloS one, 13, e0197762. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197762.
Zhang, Z. and Kim, I., 2014. Effects of multistrain probiotics on growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, cecal microbial shedding, and excreta odor contents in broilers, Poultry Science, 93, 364–370.
Zhang, W.H., Jiang, Y., Zhu, Q.F., Gao, F., Dai, S.F., Chen, J. and Zhou, G.H., 2011. Sodium butyrate maintains growth performance by regulating the immune response in broiler chickens, British Poultry Science, 52, 292–301.
Zou, Y., Yang, Z.B., Yang, W.R., Jiang, S.Z., Zhang, G.G. and YU, R., 2010. Effects of coated sodium butyrate on the performance and gut morphology of broiler chickens, Poultry Science, 89, 385–385.
This work was funded by the Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, 71526, Egypt.
The care and use of experiment birds were performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. This study has been approved by the council of Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Makled, M.N., Abouelezz, K.F.M., Gad-Elkareem, A.E.G. et al. Comparative influence of dietary probiotic, yoghurt, and sodium butyrate on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, blood hematology, and immune response of meat-type chickens. Trop Anim Health Prod 51, 2333–2342 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01945-8
- Growth promoters
- Antibiotic alternatives
- Immune response
- Gut microflora
- Broiler chickens