Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 1405–1410 | Cite as

Effects of enzyme supplementation on the nutrient, amino acid, and energy utilization efficiency of citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp in Linwu ducks

  • Xu Zhang
  • Haobang Li
  • Guitao Jiang
  • Xiangrong Wang
  • Xuan Huang
  • Chuang Li
  • Duanqin Wu
  • Qiuzhong Dai
Short Communications
  • 52 Downloads

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of enzyme supplementation on the nutrient, amino acid, and energy utilization efficiency of citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp as unusual feedstuffs in Linwu ducks. Forty ducks were assigned to each treatment group and fed diets with or without complex enzyme supplementation. All birds received the same quantity of raw material (60 g) via the force-feeding procedure. With the exception of leucine and phenylalanine, amino acid concentrations in hawthorn pulp were twice those in citrus pulp. Enzyme supplementation significantly increased apparent dry matter digestibility (ADM) of citrus pulp (P < 0.05), but had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on the apparent and true utilization rates of other nutrients, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or true metabolizable energy (TME), from citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp by Linwu ducks. However, enzyme supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) apparent gross energy, true gross energy, AME, and TME of hawthorn pulp for Linwu ducks. There were no differences in the apparent and true utilization rates of amino acids from citrus pulp (P > 0.56) between the groups, with the exception of arginine (P < 0.05). There was an increasing trend in the apparent and true utilization rates of alanine (P = 0.06) and tyrosine (P = 0.074) from citrus pulp with enzyme supplementation. The apparent and true utilization rates of threonine in hawthorn pulp were increased significantly (P < 0.05) following enzyme supplementation. The addition of exogenous enzymes improved the forage quality of citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp, which represent potential feed resources for husbandry production.

Keywords

Citrus pulp Exogenous enzyme Hawthorn pulp Linwu ducks Nutritional assessment 

Notes

Funding information

This study was funded by the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program (ASTIP-IBFC02), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics committee approval

All protocols used in the study were approved by the Hunan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Animal Care and Use Committee (Permit No. 2016–012).

References

  1. Abbasi, H., Seidavi, A., Liu, W., Asadpour, L., 2015. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken, Saudi Journal of Biological Science, 22, 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agustí, M., Mesejo, C., Reig, C., Martínezfuentes, A., 2014. Citrus production, horticulture plants for people and places, 159–195.Google Scholar
  3. Alaeldein, M. A., 2011. Effect of enzyme supplementation and wheat middlings as an alternative to corn on laying hens performance, Italy Journal of Animal Science, 10, e57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aregheore, E. M., 2000. Chemical composition and nutritive value of some tropical by-product feedstuffs for small ruminants—in vivo and in vitro digestibility, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 85, 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Association of Official Analytical Chemists–AOAC, 2007. Official methods of analysis. 18th ed. Washington DC.Google Scholar
  6. Cowieson, A. J., Adeola, O., 2005. Carbohydrases, protease, and phytase have an additive beneficial effect in nutritionally marginal diets for broiler chicks, Poultry Science, 84, 1860–1867.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dominguez, A. D. M., Cuevas, A. C., Martinez, B. F., Coello, C. L., Gonzalez, E. A., 2009. Effect of supplementing an enzyme mixture in sorghum plus soybean meal diets on apparent ileal amino acid and protein digestibility, metabolizable energy, and productivity in broilers, Tecnica Pecuaria Mexico, 47, 15–25.Google Scholar
  8. Fadel, J. G., 1999. Quantitative analyses of selected plant by-product feedstuffs, a global perspective, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 79, 255–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Juturu, V., Wu, J. C., 2014. Microbial cellulases: engineering, production and applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 33, 188–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaczmarek, S. A., Rogiewicz, A., Mogielnicka, M., Rutkowski, A., Jones, R. O., Slominski, B. A., 2014. The effect of protease, amylase, and nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and growth performance of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets, Poultry Science, 93, 1745–1753.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ma, S. L. Y., Lu, Y. M., 2016. Classification and phylogenetic analysis of Chinese hawthorn assessed by plant and pollen morphology. Genetics and Molecular Research, 15 (3): gmr.15038739.Google Scholar
  12. Mulyantini, N. G. A., Bryden, W. L., 2010. The effect of enzyme supplementation on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of broilers fed sorghum or wheat, Animal Production, 12, 169–174.Google Scholar
  13. Mushtaq, T., Sarwar, M., Ahmad, G., Mirza, M. A., Nawaz, H., Mushtaq, M. M., Noreen, U., 2007. Influence of canola meal-based diets supplemented with exogenous enzyme and digestible lysine on performance, digestibility, carcass, and immunity responses of broiler chickens, Poultry Science, 86, 2144–2151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Mushtaq, T., Sarwar, M., Ahmad, G., Mirza, M. A., Ahmad, T., Noreen, U., Mushtaq, M. M. H., Kamran, Z., 2009. Influence of sunflower meal based diets supplemented with exogenous enzyme and digestible lysine on performance, digestibility and carcass response of broiler chickens, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 149, 275–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. National Reaearch Council (U.S.) Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition, 1984. Nutrient requirements of poultry (Eighth Revised Edition). National Academy Press, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  16. Oxenboll, K. M., Pontoppidan, K., Fru-Nji, F., 2011. Use of a protease in poultry feed offers promising environmental benefits, International Journal of Poultry Science, 10, 842–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ponte, P. I. P., Ferreira, L. M. A., Soares, M. A. C., Aguiar, M. A. N. M., Lemos, J, P. C., Mendes, I., Fontes, C. M. G. A., 2004. Use of cellulases and xylanases to supplement diets containing alfalfa for broiler chicks: effects on bird performance and skin color, Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 13, 412–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rexen, B.,1981. Use of enzymes for the improvement of feed, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 6, 105–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sadeghi, G. H., Pourreza, J., Samei, A., Rahmani, H., 2009. Chemical composition and some anti-nutrient content of raw and processed bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for use as feeding stuff in poultry diet, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41, 85–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Selle, P. H., Ravindran, V., Ravindran, G., Pittolo, P. H., Bryden, W. L., 2003. Influences of phytase and xylanase supplementation on growth performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers offered wheat-based diets, Asian-Austral Journal of Animal Science, 16, 394–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Walsh, G. A., Power, R. F., Headon, D. R., 1993. Enzymes in animal feed industry, Trends in Biotechnology, 11, 424–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Yang, Y., Iji, P. A., Choct, M., 2009. Dietary modulation of gut microflora in broiler chickens: a review of the role of six kinds of alternatives to in-feed antibiotics, World Poultry Science Journal, 65, 97–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhang, Z. S., Ho, W. K. K., Huang, Y., James, A. E., Lam, L. W., Chen, Z. Y., 2002. Hawthorn fruit is hypolipidemic in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet, Journal of Nutrition, 132, 5–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xu Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haobang Li
    • 2
  • Guitao Jiang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiangrong Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xuan Huang
    • 2
  • Chuang Li
    • 2
  • Duanqin Wu
    • 1
  • Qiuzhong Dai
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Bast Fiber CropsChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesChangsha CityPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Hunan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary MedicineChangshaPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations