Prevalence of Leptospira serogroup-specific antibodies in cattle associated with reproductive problems in endemic states of India

  • Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan
  • Anusha Alamuri
  • K. Bharathkumar
  • Sharanagouda Siddanagouda Patil
  • Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj
  • Mohandoss Nagalingam
  • Paramanandham Krishnamoorthy
  • Habibur Rahman
  • Bibek Ranjan Shome
Regular Articles
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, the seroprevalence and distribution of Leptospira in dairy cattle in endemic states of India were investigated in association with reproductive problems of the cattle. A total of 373 cattle serum samples from 45 farms in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Sikkim and Uttarakhand states were collected from animals with a history of reproductive disorders like abortion, repeat breeding, anoestrus and endometritis, and also from apparently healthy animals. These samples were screened for Leptospira serogroup-specific antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using a panel of 18 live reference serovar antigens. The seropositivity of 70.51% (263/373, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.75) was associated with reproductive problems (χ2 = 55.71, p < 0.01) and sampled states (χ2 = 32.99, p < 0.01) and independent of apparently healthy animals (χ2 = 15.6, p > 0.10) and age groups of cattle (χ2 = 0.91, p > 0.10). Further, the odds (risk-relation) of reproductive disorders was 5.29 compared to apparently healthy animals (0.25 odds). The frequency distribution of predominant serogroup-specific Leptospira antibodies were determined against the serovars: Hardjo (27.76%), Pyrogenes (18.63%), Canicola and Javanica (17.49%), Hebdomadis (17.11%), Shermani and Panama (16.73%), Djasiman (16.35%), Tarassovi, Grippotyphosa and Pomona (15.97%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (15.59%), Copenhageni (14.83%), Australis (13.69%), Kaup and Hurstbridge (10.65%), Bankinang (10.27%) and Bataviae (9.51%). In conclusion, dairy cattle have a role in maintaining important several serovars besides well-known Hardjo serovar in endemic states of India and warrant mitigating measures to reduce the incidence of cattle leptospirosis including need for an intensive surveillance programme, preventive vaccination and control strategies.

Keywords

Leptospirosis Cattle reproductive disorders Serogroup antibody distribution Seroprevalence MAT 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors wish to thank the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, India, for encouragement and support. Part of this work was funded from ICAR-Network project on Outreach Programme on Zoonotic Diseases (OPZD) (F. No. 14 (1)/2009-ASR.IV). The authors thank the ICAR-NIVEDI staff for the constant support and timely help.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Balamurugan, V., Gangadhar, N.L., Mohandoss, N., Thirumalesh, S.R.A., Dhar, M., Shome, R., Krishnamoorthy, P., Prabhudas, K. and Rahman, H., 2013. Characterization of Leptospira isolates from animals and humans: phylogenetic analysis identifies the prevalence of intermediate species in India. Springer Plus, 2, 362. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-362 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Balamurugan, V., Alamuri, A., Veena, S., Bharatkumar, K., Patil, S.S. and Govindaraj, G., 2016a. Investigation on the prevalence of leptosira serovars Hardjo in organized cattle dairy farms of India. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 86 (10), 1145–1147Google Scholar
  3. Balamurugan, V., Thirumalesh, S.R.A., Sridevi, R., Govindaraj, G., Nagalingam, M., Hemadri, D., Gajendragad, M.R. and Rahman, H., 2016b. Microscopic agglutination test analysis identifies prevalence of intermediate species serovars in ruminants in endemic states of India. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Section B: Biological Sciences, 86(2), 469–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balamurugan, V., Thirumalesh, S.R.A., Veena, S., Alamuri, A., Nagalingam, M., Sridevi, R., Govindaraj, G., Hemadri, D., Gajendragad, M.R. and Rahman, H., 2016c. Investigation on the distribution of Leptospira serovars and its prevalence in bovine in Konkan region, Maharashtra, India. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 4(2s), 19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balamurugan, V., Veena, S., Thirumalesh, S.R.A., Alamuri, A., Sridevi, R., Sengupta, P.P., Govindaraj, G., Nagalingam, M., Hemadri, D., Gajendragad, M.R. and Rahman, H., 2017. Distribution of serogroup specific antibodies against leptospirosis in livestock in Odisha. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 87 (5), 546–551Google Scholar
  6. Chadsuthi, S., Bicout, D.J., Wiratsudakul, A., Suwancharoen, D., Petkanchanapong, W., Modchang, C., Triampo, W., Ratanakorn, P. and Chalvet-Monfray, K., 2017. Investigation on predominant Leptospira serovars and its distribution in humans and livestock in Thailand, 2010-2015. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(2), e0005228CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Leonard, N., Mee, J.F., Snijders, S. and Mackie, D., 2004. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in bulk tank milk from unvaccinated Irish dairy herds. Irish Veterinary Journal, 57, 226–231CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Levett, P.N., 2001. Leptospirosis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 14, 296–326CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Natarajaseenivasan, K., Vedhagiri, K., Sivabalan, V., Prabagaran, S.G., Sukumar, S., Artiushin, S.C. and Timoney, J.F., 2011. Seroprevalence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar javanica infection among dairy cattle, rats and humans in the cauvery river valley of southern India. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 42(3), 679–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Office International des Épizooties (OIE-World Organisation for Animal Health)., 2013. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, OIE. Paris. Chapter 2.1.9. Pp. 251–264Google Scholar
  11. Patel, J.M., Vihol, P.D., Prasad, M.C., Kalyani, I.H., Raval, J.K., Patel, K.M., Thirumalesh, S.R.A. and Balamurugan, V., 2014. Seroepidemiological pattern of leptospirosis in bovine of South Gujarat, India. Veterinary World, 7 (11), 999–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Quinn, P.J., Carter, M.E., Markey, B. and Carter, G.R., 1994. Clinical veterinary microbiology. Wolfe Publication Ltd. Spain. Pp. 296–303Google Scholar
  13. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G., 1989. Statistical Methods, Iowa State University Press, 8th Edition. 1989Google Scholar
  14. Srivastava, S.K., 2008. Current status of leptospirosis in India in animals and humans. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology, 32 (2), 179–186Google Scholar
  15. Srivastava, S.K. and Kumar, A.A., 2003. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in animals and human beings in various regions in the country. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 24, 155–159Google Scholar
  16. Vijayachari, P., Sugunan, A.P. and Shriram, A.N., 2008. Leptospirosis: an emerging global public health problem. Journal of Biosciences, 33(4), 557–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. World Health Organisation., 2011. Report of the Second Meeting of the Leptospirosis Burden Epidemiology Reference Group. ISBN 978 92 4 150152 1. Printed by the WHO Document Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland. Pp. 7–14Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan
    • 1
  • Anusha Alamuri
    • 1
  • K. Bharathkumar
    • 1
  • Sharanagouda Siddanagouda Patil
    • 1
  • Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj
    • 1
  • Mohandoss Nagalingam
    • 1
  • Paramanandham Krishnamoorthy
    • 1
  • Habibur Rahman
    • 1
  • Bibek Ranjan Shome
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (ICAR-NIVEDI)BengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations