Anthelmintic efficacy of hydro-methanolic extracts of Larrea tridentata against larvae of Haemonchus contortus
An in vitro study was conducted to determine the anthelminthic activity of hydro-methanolic extracts of Larrea tridentata on sheathed and exsheathed larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Larvae of the parasite were incubated at 20–25 °C in hydro-methanolic extracts at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL for 24, 48, or 72 h. Ivermectin and water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. Total phenolic compounds of leaves of L. tridentata were 97.88 ± 10.45 mg/g of dry matter. Other compounds detected in this shrub by HPLC-mass spectrometry were sesamin, galocatechin, peonidin 3-O rutinoside, methyl galangin, epigallocatechin 7-O-glucuronide, and epigalocatechin. Mortality rate of sheathed and exsheathed H. contortus was low (16–34%) with doses ≤ 100 mg/mL of the extracts. At 200 mg/ml, the hydro-methanolic extracts of L. tridentata killed 32.1 and 68.4% of sheathed and exsheathed larvae, respectively, regardless of incubation time. The effective concentration of the L. tridentata extract for 50% larvae mortality (EC50) after 24 h of incubation was 36 mg/mL (CI = 6–94). Microscopic observations revealed damage to the cuticle of this parasite exposed to extracts of L. tridentata. These in vitro results provided evidence that L. tridentata extracts possess anti-Haemonchus contortus properties, particularly during the exsheathed stage of this nematode. It would be necessary to assess the safety of this shrub in vivo and also to carry out in vivo efficacy studies.
KeywordsTannins Flavonols Lignan Exsheathed larvae
The authors are thankful to the personnel of Laboratory of Helminthology (CENID-PAVET) for allowing us to carry out much of this experiment in their facilities.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest statement
All authors declare that there are no actual or potential conflicts of interest between the authors and other people or organizations that could inappropriately bias their work.
- Aarland, R.C., Peralta-Gómez, S., Morales-Sánchez, C., Parra Bustamante, F., Villa-Hernández, J.M., Díaz de León Sánchez, F., Pérez-Flores, L.J., Rivera-Cabrera, F., Mendoza-Espinosa, J.A., 2015. A pharmacological and phytochemical study of medicinal plants used in Mexican folk medicine. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 14, 550–557.Google Scholar
- Alonso-Díaz, M.A., Torres-Acosta, J.F., Sandoval-Castro, C.A., Hoste, H., 2011. Comparing the sensitivity of two in vitro assays to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of tropical tannin rich plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology, 181, 360–364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beserra de Oliveira, L.M., Leal Bevilaqua, C.M., Freitas Macedo, I.T., de Morais, S.M., Barros Monteiro, M.V., Cabral Campello, C., Correia Ribeiro, W.L., Frota Batista, E.K., 2011. Effect of six tropical tanniferous plant extracts on larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria, 20, 155–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chan-Pérez, J.I., Torres-Acosta, J.F.J., Sandoval-Castro, C.A., Castañeda-Ramírez, G.S., Vilarem, G., Mathieu, C., Hoste, H., 2017. Susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins towards acetone:water extracts of polyphenol-rich plants. Part 2: Infective L3 larvae. Veterinary Parasitology, 240, 11–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Da Silva, A.S., Schafer, A.S., Aires, A.R., Tonin, A.A., Pimentel, V.C., Oliveira, C.B., Zanini, D., Schetinger, M.R.C., Lopes, S.T.A., Leal, M.L.R., 2013. E-ADA activity in erythrocytes of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and its possible functional correlations with anemia. Research in Veterinary Science, 95, 1026–1030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Geurden, T., Chartier, C., Fanke, J., di Regalbono, A. F., Traversa, D., von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G., Demeler, J, Vanimisetti, H.B. Bartram, David, J., Denwood, M.J., 2015. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance, 5, 163–171.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Klongsiriwet, C., Quijada, J., Williams, A. R., Mueller-Harvey, I., Williamson, E. M., Hoste, H., 2015. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance, 5, 127–134.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Martínez-Ortíz-de-Montellano, C., Vargas-Magaña, J.J., Canul-Ku, H.L., Miranda-Soberanis, R., Capetillo-Leal, C., Sandoval-Castro, C.A., Hoste, H., Torres-Acosta, J.F.J., 2010. Effect of tropical tannin-rich plant Lysiloma latisiliquum on adult populations of Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Veterinary Parasitology, 172, 283–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morgan, E.R., Charlier, J., Hendrickx, G., Biggeri, A., Catalan, D., von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G., Demeler, J., E. Müller, van Dijk, J.,Kenyon, F., Skuce, P., Höglund, J., O'Kiely, P. ,van Ranst, B., de Waal, T., Rinaldi, L., Cringoli, G., Hertzberg, H., Torgerson, P., Wolstenholme, A. Vercruysse, J., 2013. Global change and helminth infections in grazing ruminants: impacts, trends and sustainable solutions. Agriculture, 3, 484–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Okaiyeto, S.O., Ajanusi, O.J., Sackey, A.K., Tekdek, L.B., 2010. Changes in some hematological values associated with mixed Trypanosoma congolense and Haemonchus contortus infection in Yankasa sheep. Veterinary Research, 3, 9–13.Google Scholar
- Quijada, J., Fryganas, C., Ropiak, H.M., Ramsay, A., Mueller-Harvey, I., Hoste, H., 2015. Anthelmintic activities against Haemonchus contortus or Trichostrongylus colubriformis from small ruminants are influenced by structural features of condensed tannins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63, 6346–6354.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shrestha, B.H., Bassnett, V.D. Babu, Patel, S.S., 2009. Anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity of the chloroform extract of Pergularia daemia frosk. Advances in Pharmacology and Toxicology, 10, 13–16.Google Scholar