Virus neutralization technique as a tool to evaluate the virological profile for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in dairy water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) herds
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Serological evidence shows that the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections are present in Brazilian dairy and beef water buffalo herds. As few reports describe the BVDV infection profile the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of BVDV circulation in Brazilian dairy water buffalo herds through analysis of the seropositivity rate and the titer range of anti-BVDV neutralizing antibodies in a group of animals that are considered sentinels. Blood samples (n = 305) were obtained from unvaccinated, asymptomatic young water buffalos from four dairy herds randomly identified as A (n = 106), B (n = 62), C (n = 119), and D (n = 18). The detection and titration of anti-BVDV neutralizing antibodies were evaluated by the virus neutralization test according to the World Organization for Animal Health. Analysis of the results revealed two distinct epidemiological conditions. The first is represented by herds A and C where high rates of seropositive animals (A = 39.6%; C = 51.3%) and high and very variable antibodies titers suggested active BVDV infection. The other condition is represented by herds B and D with low rates of seropositive animals (B = 8.1%; D = 11.1%) and low and little variable antibodies titers suggesting an epidemiological condition of infection stability. Some variables were observed in herds with a distinct BVDV infection profile. Herds with active infection were big, open herds, and had more management practices. In contrast, the herds with infection stability were small, closed herds with few management practices. These results highlight the importance of evaluation, monitoring, and control of BVDV infection also in dairy water buffalo herds.
KeywordsWater buffalo BVDV Serology VN test Infection profile
The authors thank the following Brazilian Institutes for financial support: CNPq, CAPES, FINEP, and FAP/PR. Alfieri, AF and Alfieri, AA are recipients of CNPq fellowships.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee on the Use of Animals in Teaching and Research of Instituto Federal do Maranhão (IFMA) under number 23249.018982.2015-73. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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