Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) using lateral flow assay-based kit
Accurate early antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in dromedary camels is difficult due to the lack of reliable diagnostic test. The present study aimed to evaluate a lateral flow assay-based kit (rapid assay kit) in tuberculosis diagnosis that employs immuno-chromatographic detection of antibodies in serum, plasma, or whole blood. In a dromedary camel herd comprising 337 animals located at Bikaner, Rajasthan, India, 50 adult weak camels (11 males and 39 females) were tested by applying a single intradermal tuberculin test (SIDT) and rapid assay kit. A total of 14 animals (2 males, 12 females) were found positive in rapid assay. In SIDT, four animals revealed a positive reaction in the neck region and seven animals in the tail base. Another male animal was found SIDT positive but negative in rapid assay; it died after 12 months. Nine rapid assay positive animals died asymptomatically in 1- to 11-month period revealing postmortem tuberculosis lesions that were confirmed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and histopathology. No tuberculous lesion was evident in the animal found positive in SIDT alone. Results of the present study indicated that serological tests like rapid assay kit can serve as a reliable test for antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in dromedary camel.
KeywordsCamel Diagnosis Intradermal tuberculin test Lateral flow assay Tuberculosis
Authors are thankful to Bobbie Coco, Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Inc. for providing DPP Vet TB assay kits.
Compliance with ethical standards
Statement of animal rights
The manuscript does not contain any experimental trial.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
- Abubakar, U.B., Kudi, A.C., Abdulkadri, I.A., Okaiyeto, S.O. and Ibrahim, S., 2012. Prevalence of tuberculosis in slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedaries) based on post-mortem meat inspection and Zeihl-Neelsen stain in Nigeria. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 19, 29–32.Google Scholar
- Lyashchenko, K.P., Greenwald, R., Esfandiari, J., Greenwald, D., Nacy, C.A., Gibson, S., Didier, P.J., Washington, M., Szczerba, P., Motzel, S., Handt, L., Pollock, J.M., McNair, J., Andersen, P., Langermans, J.A.M., Verreck, F., Ervin, S., Ervin, F. and McCombs, C., 2007. Prima TB STAT-PAK assay, a novel, rapid lateral-flow test for tuberculosis in nonhuman primates. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 14, 1158–1164CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Wernery U, Kinne J, Schuster RK. 2014. Camelid infectious disorders. OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), Paris.Google Scholar
- Wernery, U., Kinne, J., Jahans, K.L., Vordermeier, H.M., Esfandiari, J., Greenwald, R., Johnson, B., Ul-Haq, A. and Lyashchenko, K.P., 2007. Tuberculosis outbreak in a dromedary racing herd and rapid serological detection of infected camel. Veterinary Microbiology, 122, 108–115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar