Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 787–792 | Cite as

Transrectal ultrasound evaluation in tropical dairy goats: an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of reproductive disorders

  • A. L. R. S. Maia
  • F. Z. Brandão
  • J. M. G. Souza-Fabjan
  • M. O. Veiga
  • M. F. A. Balaro
  • O. Facó
  • J. F. Fonseca
Regular Articles


In Brazil, great milk productivity was achieved after the implementation of a genetic improvement program. However, reproductive efficiency is still far from optimal, possibly due to the high number of undiagnosed disorders that may affect fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate occurrences of the main reproductive disorders in dairy goats in southeastern Brazil. Data were collected between January 2015 and May 2017 from 23 commercial herds of different breeds, with goats ranging from 8 months to 12 years of age. Transrectal ultrasound exams were performed in 2680 goats. A total of 14.8% of the does showed a disorder in the reproductive tract: hydrometra (10.0%), ovarian follicular cysts (2.3%), gestational loss (1.5%), and hydrosalpinx (1.1%). This was the first study evaluating reproductive disorders in live animals that used a high number of Brazilian dairy goats. Considering that all these diseases affect fertility to different degrees, the performance of transrectal ultrasonography exams twice a year is strongly suggested, in order to guide precocious treatment or discard the animal as soon as possible, thus reducing economic losses in dairy goat farming.


Reproductive efficiency Hydrometra Hydrosalpinx Ovarian follicular cysts Gestational loss 



The authors also thank the farmers who provided animals and animal housing conditions. FZB and JFF are fellows of the CNPq and JMGSF is a fellow of Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES).

Funding information

This study was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq Project No. 479826/2013-7), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG Project No. CVZ-PPM 00201-17), and Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA Project No.

Compliance with ethical standards

Statement of animal rights

The Animal Care Committee of the Universidade Federal Fluminense approved the study design (protocol number #678/2015), and it was conducted under the principles of the Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório (SBCAL), which regulates conditions for experiments involving animals.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. L. R. S. Maia
    • 1
  • F. Z. Brandão
    • 1
  • J. M. G. Souza-Fabjan
    • 1
  • M. O. Veiga
    • 2
  • M. F. A. Balaro
    • 1
  • O. Facó
    • 3
  • J. F. Fonseca
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculdade de VeterináriaUniversidade Federal FluminenseNiteróiBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Medicina VeterináriaUniversidade Federal de LavrasLavrasBrazil
  3. 3.Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, Estrada Sobral/GroaírasSobralBrazil

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