Description of risk factors associated with the detection of BVDV antibodies in Brazilian pig herds
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects ruminants as primary hosts. However, other animals like pigs are susceptible. This study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and risk factors associated with the detection of BVDV antibodies in pig herds. A total of 1.705 serum samples of 33 finisher herds, from seven Brazilian states, were collected in slaughterhouses. The samples were tested by virus neutralization (VN) test. In total, 5.35% (91/1.705) were positive and 64% (21/33) of the herds had positive animals. A significant association with “trucks are not cleaned and disinfected” and “visitors do not respect 72-h interval between visits to farms” (P < 0.05) was found in association with detection of BVDV-2 antibodies. This study suggests that important biosecurity gaps are present in Brazilian pig farms, as the presence of BVDV antibodies in pigs suggests (direct or indirect) contact with population(s) of ruminant species. Closing biosecurity gaps prevents spread of BVDV and other pathogens such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) between pig and ruminant farms. This data should be taken in account by CSF surveillance programs, once cross-reaction in serologic tests between classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and BVDV antibodies has been shown to occur.
KeywordsInterspecies infection Pestivirus infection Risk factors Swine
The authors would like to acknowledge the farm owners, the participating slaughterhouse, and the laboratory staff of Preventive Veterinary Medicine’s Department of São Paulo State University (UNESP). We would like to thank student Marina L. Mechler for helping during article writing.
Financial support was provided by grant 2014/13590-3, São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) and for the scholarship by the grant 132665/2014-0, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethics committee approval
The institution’s ethics committee approved this study, and the certificate registered under the protocol no. 07998/14 on 8 May 2014.
- Carbrey, E.A., Stewart, W.C., Kresse, J.I., Snyder, M.L., 1976. Natural infection of pigs with bovine viral diarrhea virus and its differential diagnosis from hog cholera, Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 169, 1217–1219.Google Scholar
- Deng, Y., Sun, C.Q., Cao, S.J., Lin, T., Yuan, S.S., Zhang, H.B., Zhai, S.L., Huang, L., Shan, T.L., Zheng, H., Wen, X.T., Tong, G.Z., 2012. High prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea vírus 1 in chinese swine herds, Veterinary Microbiology, 159, 490–493.Google Scholar
- Gatto, I.R.H., Arruda, A.G., Almeida, H.M.S., Silva, G.C.P., Leite, A.I., Samara, S.I., Dutra, I.S., Ogata, R.A., Oliveira, L.G., 2016. A cross-sectional study to estimate the frequency of anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 antibodies in domestic pigs of Mossoró region in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, Ciência Rural, 46, 1607–1612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2012). Estados@. In: Estatísticas, IBGE, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. http://www.ibge.gov.br/estadosat/index.php Accessed 22 Sep 2016
- Lenihan, P., Collery, P., 1977. Bovine viral diarrhoea infection in pigs in Ireland: a serological survey and an epidemiological study. Hog cholera/Classical Swine Fever and African Swine Fever Publication ref. EUR, 5904, 314–322.Google Scholar
- Thrusfield, M. V., 2010. In: Veterinary Epidemiology. Third. Blackwell Publishing, London.Google Scholar
- World Organization for Animal Health (2015). Bovine Viral Diarrhoea. In: Manual of Diagnostics Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, OIE, Paris, France, pp 698–710.Google Scholar