Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 727–732 | Cite as

Anthelmintic effects of indigenous multipurpose fodder tree extracts against Haemonchus contortus

  • Ashenafi Assefa
  • Yisehak Kechero
  • Taye Tolemariam
  • Assefa Kebede
  • Eshetu Shumi
Regular Articles


Condensed tannins (CT) extracted from Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, and Celtis toka browses were used to evaluate their anthelmintic effect on different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus. To achieve this objective, various serial concentrations of each CT extract of the foliages were used to test adult motility, inhibition of egg hatchability, and larval development. The fodders were selected based on their multipurpose advantage and accessibility to use as fodder for livestock in the low lands of the Gambella region. The fastest and slowest adult motility rate was observed in 2-ml (4 min) and 0.125-ml dose of C. toka, respectively, which is better than that in ivermectin. Egg hatchability inhibition was observed with dose difference within species, but there is no difference between B. aegyptiaca and T. indica. The foliage extracts of the studied browses were observed to inhibit the larvae by 100% at 2 ml, which is similar to ivermectin. There is no significant difference observed in larvae development inhibition between the species and ivermectin (p > 0.05). CT extracts of studied plants have found to own significant anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner. They could serve as anthelmintic economically and eco-friendly after further and series of in vivo experiments.


Anthelmintic Condensed tannin Foliage Haemonchus contortus 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Albadawi, R.O.E., 2010., In vivo and in vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Balanites aegyptiaca and Artemisia herba Alba on Haemonchus contortus of sheep (Doctoral dissertation, University of Khartoum).Google Scholar
  2. Ashenafi, A., Yisehak, K., Taye, T., 2017. Bioprospecting indigenous fodder trees and shrubs in Gambella region of Ethiopia: Searching for nutritional potential of browses with anthelmintic and antibacterial activity, (unpublished PhD thesis, Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine)Google Scholar
  3. Athanasiadou, S., Kyriazakis, I., Jackson, F. and Coop, R.L., 2001. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo studies. Veterinary Parasitology, 99(3), 205–219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhat, S., Mir, S., Allaie, H., Khan, I., Husain and Ali, A., 2011. Comparative Resistance of Sheep Breeds to Haemonchus contortus in Pasture Infection in Jammu and Kashmir. Global Veterinary, 8: 222–228.Google Scholar
  5. Coles, G.C., Jackson, F., Pomroy, W.E., Prichard, R.K., von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G., Silvestre, A., Taylor, M.A. and Vercruysse, J., 2006. The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Veterinary parasitology, 136(3), 167–185.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Costa, C.T.C., Bevilaqua, C.M.L., Camurça-Vasconcelos, A.L.F., Maciel, M.V., Morais, S.M., Castro, C.M.S., Braga, R.R. and Oliveira, L.M.B., 2008. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica extracts on Haemonchus contortus. Small Ruminant Research, 74(1), 284–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Das, S.S., Dey, M. and Ghosh, A.K., 2011. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus indica Linn. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 73(1), 104CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Feyisa, K., Tadesse, B. and Eyob, H., 2015 Advanced Review on Anthelmintic Medicinal Plants. Rep Opinion 2015; 7(5):6–16. (ISSN: 1553–9873).
  9. Gazzinelli, A., Correa-Oliveira, R., Yang, G.J., Boatin, B.A. and Kloos, H., 2012. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: social ecology, environmental determinants, and health systems. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 6(4), e1603.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Jabbar, A., Iqbal, Z., Kerboeuf, D., Muhammad, G., Khan, M.N. and Afaq, M., 2006. Anthelmintic resistance: the state of play revisited. Life sciences, 79(26), 2413–2431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kaplan, R.M. and Vidyashankar, A.N., 2012. An inconvenient truth: global warming and anthelmintic resistance. Veterinary parasitology, 186(1), 70–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lem, M.F., Vincent, K.P., Josue, W.P., Jeannette, Y., Gertrude, M.T. and Joseph, T., 2014. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities of stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) against Haemonchus contortus. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5(19), 2859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Min, B.R., Barry, T.N., Attwood, G.T. and McNabb, W.C., 2003. The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 106(1),3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moges, S., Hebtom, K., Gashaw, B., Melkamu, Temsegen and Sefefe, T., 2017. Prevalence of Haemonchus contortus of Sheep Slaughtered at Bahir Dar Municipal Abattoir, Bahir City, Ethiopia. Global Veterinary, 8: 222–228. DOI: Google Scholar
  15. Muhammad, G., Abdul, M., Khan, R., Saqib M., 2004. Use of neostigmine in massive Ivermectin toxicity in cats. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 46: 28–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Mute, V.M., Keta, A., Patel, K.S., Mirchandani, D. and Parth, C., 2009. Anthelmintic effect of Tamarind indica Linn leaves juice exract on pheretima posthuma. International Journal of Pharma Res Dev, 7, 01–06.Google Scholar
  17. Paddock, R., 2010. Hemonchus contortus in sheep and goats: An insidious killer of parasitic diseases and of their control in production animals. Veterinary Parasitology, 84: 145–168.Google Scholar
  18. Peterson, D.G., Boehm, K.S. and Stack, S.M., 1997. Isolation of milligram quantities of nuclear DNA from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), a plant containing high levels of polyphenolic compounds. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 15(2), 148–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Porter, L. J., Hrstich, L. N., and Chan, B. G., 1985. The conversion of procyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyanidin and delphinidin. Photochemistry 25:223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. SAS, 2010. User’s Guide: Statistics. SAS Institute Inc., Cary.Google Scholar
  21. Stangeland, T., Dhillion, S.S. and Reksten, H., 2008. Recognition and development of traditional medicine in Tanzania. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 117(2), 290–299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Tanner, S., Chuquimia-Choque, M.E., Huanca, T., McDade, T.W., Leonard, W.R. and Reyes-García, V., 2011. The effects of local medicinal knowledge and hygiene on helminth infections in an Amazonian society. Social Science & Medicine, 72(5), 701–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Waghorn, G.C. and McNabb, W.C., 2003. Consequences of plant phenolic compounds for productivity and health of ruminants. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62(02), 383–392.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Williams, A.R., Fryganas, C., Ramsay, A., Mueller-Harvey, I. and Thamsborg, S.M., 2014. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum. PLoS One, 9(5), e97053.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Zelalem, A., Yisehak, K., Assefa, K. and Abdu, M., 2014. Comparison of the Inhibitory Effects of Doses of Tannin Rich Plant Extracts and vermectin on Egg Hatchability, Larvae Development and Adult Mortality of Haemonchus contortus. Acta Parasitologica Globalis, 5 (3): 160–168.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashenafi Assefa
    • 1
  • Yisehak Kechero
    • 2
  • Taye Tolemariam
    • 3
  • Assefa Kebede
    • 3
  • Eshetu Shumi
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Agriculture and Natural ResourceGambella UniversityGambellaEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Animal SciencesArba Minch UniversityArba MinchEthiopia
  3. 3.Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary MedicineJimmaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations