Induction of adventitious roots from leaf explants of Morinda coreia Buch. and ham. : an important dye yielding plant


The present communication reports, induction of adventitious roots (AR) from the in vitro raised leaves of Morinda coreia as affected by auxins and their varying concentrations. The roots of this plant possess anthraquinone, a preferable natural dye, explored well in pharmaceuticals. The AR from the leaves were induced under light and dark conditions within 5 weeks on half-strength Murashige and Shook’s (MS) medium. Among the various auxins and their concentrations tested, half-strength MS medium augmented with indole-3 butyric acid (IBA) at 4.0 mg/L was recorded most favorable in induction of AR (0.7997 gm fresh weight and 0.0698 gm dry weight) with negligible callus under dark conditions. The present study aimed to analyze the combined effect of light/dark and auxins on the induction of AR from the in vitro raised leaves of M. coreia. The protocol can be used for large scale proliferation of roots and enhanced production of dye (anthraquinones).

Key message

An effective protocol has been developed to induce adventitious roots from the leaves of M. coreia to provide a continuous supply of roots to be used as standard material.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Baque A, Hahn EJ, Paek KY (2010) Induction mechanism of adventitious roots from leaf explants of Morinda citrifolia as affected by auxin and light quality. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 46:71–80

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Basra AS (2004) Plant growth regulators in agriculture and horticulture. The Haworth Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  3. Cimanga K, Hermans N, Apers S, Van Miert S, Van Heuvel H, Claeys M, Pieters L, Vlietinck A (2003) Complement inhibiting iridoids from Morinda morindoide. J Nat Prod 66:97–102

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Demirci T, Aras Ascı Ö, Göktürk Baydar N (2020) Influence of salicylic acid and L-phenylalanine on the accumulation of anthraquinone and phenolic compounds in adventitious root cultures of madder (Rubia tinctorum L.). Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult.

  5. Geiss G, Gutierrez L, Bellini C (2009) Adventitious roots formation: New insights and perspectives. In: Beekman T (ed) Root Development. Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 376

  6. Hahn EJ, Kim YS, Yu KW, Jeong CS, Paek KY (2003) AR cultures of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer and ginsenoside production through large scale bioreactor systems. J Plant Biotechnol 5:1–6

    Google Scholar 

  7. Han L, Piao XC, Jiang J, Jiang XL, Yin CR, Lian ML (2019) A high production of flavonoids and anthraquinones via adventitious root culture of Oplopanax elatus and evaluating antioxidant activity. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 137:173–179.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kannan N, Manokari M, Shekhawat MS (2020) Enhanced production of anthraquinones and phenolic compounds using chitosan from the adventitious roots of Morinda coreia Buck. and Ham. Ind Crops Prod 148:112321.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Krishnan SRS, Siril EA (2018) Elicitor mediated adventitious root culture for the large-scale production of anthraquinones from Oldenlandia umbellata L. Ind Crops Prod 114:173–179.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Lin C, Sauter M (2018) Control of adventitious root architecture in rice by darkness, light and gravity. Plant Physiol 176:1352–1364

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Lu-berck W, Hannes H (2001) Noni, El Valioso Tesoro Curativo de Los Mares del Sur. Editorial EDAF SA, Madrid

    Google Scholar 

  12. Mathivanan N, Surendiran G, Srinivasan K, Sagadevan E, Malarvizhi K (2005) Review on the current scenario of Noni research: Taxonomy, distribution, chemistry, medicinal and therapeutic values of Morinda citrifolia. Int J Noni Res 1:1–16

    Google Scholar 

  13. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio-assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Perassolo M, Smith ME, Giulietti AM, Talou JR (2016) Synergistic effect of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins on anthraquinone accumulation in cell suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia and Rubia tinctorum. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 124:319–330.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Pillai AR, Gangaprasad A (2018) Adventitious root derived callus culture and anthraquinone production in Gynochthodes umbellata (L.) Razafim. & B. Bremer (Rubiaceae). Asian J Plant Sci Res 8: 34–39

  16. Pradeepa D (2013) Studies on adventitious root induction in Withania somnifera, its mass cultivation and production of therapeutically active withanolides through bioconversion. Ph.D. thesis submitted to the Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women University, Coimbatore, India

  17. Rout GR (2006) Effect of auxins on adventitious root development from single node cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and associated biochemical changes. Plant Growth Regul 48:111–117

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Sharma NK (2003) Rare and threatened plants of Hadoti Plateau-Rajasthan. In: Agarwal SK (ed) Environmental scenario for 21st century. APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, pp 201–215

    Google Scholar 

  19. Shekhawat MS, Kannan N, Manokari M (2015) In vitro propagation of traditional medicinal and dye yielding plant Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham. South Afr J Bot 100:43–50

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Shekhawat MS, Manokari M, Kannan N (2017) Micromorphological response towards altered environmental conditions in subsequent stages of in vitro propagation of Morinda coreia. Environ Exp Biol 15:37–46

    Google Scholar 

  21. Singh J, Tiwari RD (1976) Flavone glycosides from the flowers of Morinda species. J Indian Chem Soc 53:424

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Sujit CD, Rahman MA (2011) Taxonomic revision of the genus Morinda L. (Rubiaceae) in Bangladesh. Bangl J Bot 40:113–120

    Google Scholar 

  23. Umamaheswari C, Ambethkar A, Francis SM, Selvaraj N (2014) In vitro root culture from roots and leaf explants of Luffa Acutangula(L.) Roxb. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol 3:16886–16895

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Wang MY, Su C (2001) Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). Ann N Y Acad Sci 952:161–168

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are grateful to the Science and Engineering Research Board, Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, Government of India for providing financial support as Extra Mural Research Project to their laboratory.

Author information




MSS, NK, and MM have conducted the experiments; NK and MM participated in the analysis of data, preparation of tables and figures; MSS edited the whole manuscript; MSS designed the experiments and supervised them. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mahipal S. Shekhawat.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors report no declarations of interest.

Human and animal rights

This research did not involve experiments with human or animal participants.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Communicated by Barbara Mary Doyle Prestwich.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Electronic supplementary material 1 (DOC 5259 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kannan, N., Manokari, M. & Shekhawat, M.S. Induction of adventitious roots from leaf explants of Morinda coreia Buch. and ham. : an important dye yielding plant. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 145, 457–460 (2021).

Download citation


  • Adventitious roots
  • Anthraquinone
  • Light
  • Nuna