Endophytic bacteria isolated from wild jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis L. (Schneider)] roots improve in vitro propagation
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Endophytic bacteria promote plant growth, reduce stress caused by biotic and abiotic factors, and can trigger active defense reactions in plants. This study aimed to evaluate enzyme activity of in vitro jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plants inoculated with endophytic bacteria. In vitro shoots of female and male plants were inoculated with strains of Azospirillum brasilense (Cd), Methylobacterium aminovorans (JRR11), Rhodococcus pyridinivorans (JRR22) or co-inoculated with a mixture of JRR11 + JRR22. A total of 10 treatments were performed to evaluate shoot and root length; changes in key enzymes involved in plant defense (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase) after post-inoculation (45 days). All endophytic bacteria strains used promoted plant growth and rhizogenesis. Differences were found in enzyme activity between female and male plants. The plants inoculated with JRR22 strain, showed the highest enzyme activity suggesting an induced systemic response and a potential increase in plant resistance to pathogen attack.
KeywordsMethylobacterium aminovorans Rhodococcus pyridinivorans Chlorophyll Carotenoids Catalase Peroxidase Superoxide dismutase
Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste S.C. (CIBNOR) staff Norma Ochoa-Alvarez of the Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory; Margarito Rodriguez-Alvarez and Sergio Real-Cosio of the Plant Biotechnology Laboratory; Orlando Lugo–Lugo and Norma O. Olguín-Monroy of the Oxidative Stress Laboratory for technical support provided in this study; and Diana Fischer for English edition. The authors would like to acknowledge the Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory (CULTEV) at Universidad Nacional de Luján, Argentina for providing A. brasilense Cd strains.
EPR developed the experiments and analysis. LAM director and advisor of the experiments and results. MEP microbiology advisor. RVJ genetic analysis advisor. TZS enzymatic analysis advisor. EMB statistical analysis advisor.
The authors of this study thank Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) for scholarship No 331467. This work was supported by Sistema Nacional de Inspección y Certificación de Semillas y Sistema Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos (SNICS-SINAREFI) under the Jojoba Net project BEI-JOJ-13-4.SNICS-SINAREFI-BEI-JOJ-13-4.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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