A blockchain-based online language learning system

Abstract

To check students’ daily language learning tasks and give students corresponding reasonable scores based on their daily behavior is hard for teachers. The existing online language learning systems are vulnerable and easy to be modified by teachers or system managers. Blockchain can provide immutable and trusted storage service and automatic calculation service. Therefore, a blockchain-based online language learning system is proposed in this paper to monitor students’ daily study and automatically evaluate their behavior so as to save teachers from tedious and complex homework verification workload and provide trusted and reliable evaluation on students’ behavior. This paper first introduces the current situation of language learning in universities and the related works on blockchain-based online language learning system. Then the system is detailed in its structure and smart contracts. At last, we implement this system and do the analysis and summary.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. 1.

    Kugamoorthy, S, & Sunil Weerakoon, W. M.: Continuous assessment methods: Critical review for quality improvement of the post graduate diploma in education programme of the open university of Sri Lanka.

  2. 2.

    Ma, J. (2019). Hong Kong college students’ perceptions of continuous assessment in the context of academic literacy instruction. In English literacy instruction for Chinese speakers (pp. 265–280). Springer.

  3. 3.

    Alayafi, E. G., & Gunduz, P. (2017). An essential tool for continuous assessment: The learning portfolio. In Revisiting EFL assessment (pp. 237–259). Springer.

  4. 4.

    Trotter, E. (2006). Student perceptions of continuous summative assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 31(5), 505–521.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Nakamoto, S., et al. (2008). Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system.

  6. 6.

    Mingxiao D, Xiaofeng M, Zhe Z, Xiangwei W, & Qijun C. (2017). A review on consensus algorithm of blockchain. In 2017 IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics (SMC) (pp. 2567–2572). IEEE.

  7. 7.

    Fernández-Caramés, T. M., & Fraga-Lamas, P. (2019). Towards next generation teaching, learning, and context-aware applications for higher education: A review on blockchain, iot, fog and edge computing enabled smart campuses and universities. Applied Sciences, 9(21), 4479.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Han, M., Li, Z. He, J., Wu, D., Xie, Y., & Baba, A. (2018). A novel blockchain-based education records verification solution. In Proceedings of the 19th annual SIG conference on information technology education (pp. 178–183).

  9. 9.

    Liu, Q., Guan, Q., Yang, X., Zhu, H., Green, G., & Yin, S. (2018). Education-industry cooperative system based on blockchain. In 2018 1st IEEE international conference on hot information-centric networking (HotICN) (pp. 207–211). IEEE.

  10. 10.

    Gräther, W., Kolvenbach, S., Ruland, R., Schütte, J., Torres, C., & Wendland, F. (2018). Blockchain for education: Lifelong learning passport. In Proceedings of 1st ERCIM Blockchain workshop 2018. European Society for Socially Embedded Technologies (EUSSET).

  11. 11.

    Al Harthy, K., Al Shuhaimi, F., & Al Ismaily, K. K. J. (2019). The upcoming blockchain adoption in higher-education: Requirements and process. In 2019 4th MEC international conference on big data and smart city (ICBDSC) (pp. 1–5). IEEE.

  12. 12.

    Hori, M., Ono, S., Miyashita, K., Kobayashi, S., Miyahara, H., Kita, T., et al. (2018). Learning system based on decentralized learning model using blockchain and sns. CSEDU, 1, 183–190.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Wu, B., & Li, Y. (2018). Design of evaluation system for digital education operational skill competition based on blockchain. In 2018 IEEE 15th international conference on e-business engineering (ICEBE) (pp. 102–109). IEEE.

  14. 14.

    Lizcano, D., Lara, J. A., White, B., & Aljawarneh, S. (2019). Blockchain-based approach to create a model of trust in open and ubiquitous higher education. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 32, 1–26.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Zhong, J., Xie, H., Zou, D., & Chui, D. K. W (2018). A blockchain model for word-learning systems. In 2018 5th international conference on behavioral, economic, and socio-cultural computing (BESC) (pp. 130–131). IEEE.

  16. 16.

    Grech, A., & Camilleri, A. F (2017). Blockchain in education.

  17. 17.

    Karale, A., & Khanuja, K. Blockchain technology in education system: A review. International Journal of Computer Applications, 975, 8887.

  18. 18.

    Williams, P. (2019). Does competency-based education with blockchain signal a new mission for universities? Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 41(1), 104–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Chen, G., Bing, X., Manli, L., & Chen, N.-S. (2018). Exploring blockchain technology and its potential applications for education. Smart Learning Environments, 5(1), 1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Rooksby, J., & Dimitrov, K. (2019). Trustless education? A blockchain system for university grades 1. Ubiquity: The Journal of Pervasive Media, 6(1), 83–88.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Wood, G., et al. (2014). Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger. Ethereum Project Yellow Paper, 151(2014), 1–32.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Ocheja, P., Flanagan, B., & Ogata, H. (2018). Connecting decentralized learning records: A blockchain based learning analytics platform. In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on learning analytics and knowledge (pp. 265–269).

  23. 23.

    Donet, J. A. D., Pérez-Sola, C., & Herrera-Joancomartí, J. (2014). The bitcoin p2p network. In International conference on financial cryptography and data security (pp. 87–102). Springer.

  24. 24.

    Chris, D. (2017). Introducing ethereum and solidity (Vol. 1). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Androulaki, E., Barger, A., Bortnikov, V., Cachin, C., Christidis, K., De Caro, A., Enyeart, D., Ferris, C., Laventman, G., Manevich, Y., et al. (2018). Hyperledger fabric: A distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains. In Proceedings of the thirteenth EuroSys conference (pp. 1–15).

  26. 26.

    Donovan, A. A. A., & Kernighan, B. W. (2015). The Go programming language. Boston: Addison-Wesley Professional.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2018YFC1315404) and scientific research key grand “Genre analysis of English academic research papers on the basis of Internet resources” of Wuhan College (KYZ 201906).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jinglin Zou.

Ethics declarations

conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sun, X., Zou, J., Li, L. et al. A blockchain-based online language learning system. Telecommun Syst 76, 155–166 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11235-020-00699-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Blockchain
  • Online learning system
  • Education