Smart heterogeneous networks: a 5G paradigm

Abstract

An exponential growth in data demand on wireless networks and wireless link capacity approaching its theoretical limits, bound us to find new solutions and innovative network designs to handle the enormous amount of traffic. In this paper, we discuss long term evolution-advance (LTE-A) heterogeneous networks (HetNets) being a most effective solution to break this wireless cellular capacity crunch. LTE-A HetNets provide adequate increase in capacity by utilizing multi-tier architecture consisting of different type of cells i.e macro cell, small cell, relay and device to device. However this increase in capacity comes with certain challenges in HetNets outlined in this article. Considering inter cell interference coordination (ICIC) as biggest challenge in LTE-A HetNets, this article surveys state of the art LTE-A HetNets deployments with focus on ICIC. Effective ICIC techniques allow further substantial capacity increase. We give state of the art ICIC on air-interface as well as backhaul strategies for effective ICIC in LTE-A HetNets. Operators perspective of LTE-A HetNets with some insight to future of 5G LTE-A HetNets is provided. We also provide simulation results to show how LTE-A HetNets lead to realize ambitious targets of 5G technology in terms of capacity.

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Abbreviations

3GPP:

Third generation partnership project

5G:

Fith generation

ABSF:

Almost blank sub-frame

AFR:

Adaptive frequency reuse

AP:

Access point

BER:

Bit error rate

BS:

Base station

CA:

Carrier aggregation

CAPEX:

Capital expenditure

CC:

Component carrier

CoMP:

Coordinated multi-point

CRAN:

Cloud radio access network

CRE:

Cell range expansion

CRN:

Cognitive radio networks

CS/CB:

Coordinated scheduling and coordinated beam forming

CSG:

Closed subscriber group

CSI:

Channel state information

D2D:

Device to device communication

DLHII:

Downlink high interference indicator

DPS:

Dynamic point selection

DSL:

Digital subscriber line

E2E:

End to end

EE:

Energy efficiency

eNB:

Evolved node B

FDD:

Frequency division duplex

FFR:

Fractional frequency reuse

FFT:

Fast fourier transform

GFDM:

Generalized frequency division multiple access

HD:

High definition

HeNB:

Home eNB

HetNet:

Heterogenous network

HII:

High interference indicator

IAI:

Inter antenna interference

ICI:

Inter channel interference

ICIC:

Inter cell interference coordination

IFFT:

Inverse fast fourier transform

IOI:

Interference overload indicator

JP:

Joint processing

JT:

Joint transmission

KPI:

Key performance indicator

LED:

Light-emitting diode

LOS:

Line of sight

LTE-A:

Long term evolution-advance

MAC:

Medium access control

MCNF:

Minimum cost network flow

MIMO:

Multiple input multiple output

mmWave:

Millimeter wave

NG-PON:

Next generation passive optical networks

NOMA:

Non orthogonal multiple access

OFDM:

Orthogonal frequency division multiple access

OFP:

Orthogonal frequency partitioning

OPEX:

Operational expenditure

OSG:

Open subscriber group

PAPR:

Peak to average power ratio

PCC:

Primary component carrier

PDCCH:

Physical downlink control channel

PDSCH:

Physical downlink shared channel

PFR:

Partial frequency reuse

QoS:

Quality of service

RB:

Resource block

Rel.:

Release

RN:

Relay node

RNTP:

Relative narrow-band transmit power

RRH:

Remote radio head

RTT:

Round trip time

SCC:

Secondary component carrier

SDR:

Software defined radio

SE:

Spectral efficiency

SFR:

Soft frequency reuse

SINR:

Single to interference and noise ratio

SM:

Spatial modulation

TTI:

Transmission time interval

UE:

User equipment

VLC:

Visible light communication

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Correspondence to Mudassar Ali.

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Ali, M., Mumtaz, S., Qaisar, S. et al. Smart heterogeneous networks: a 5G paradigm. Telecommun Syst 66, 311–330 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11235-017-0291-6

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Keywords

  • LTE-A
  • ICIC
  • 5G
  • HetNets
  • OFDMA