Systematic Parasitology

, Volume 95, Issue 2–3, pp 235–247 | Cite as

Molecular genetic diversity of Gongylonema neoplasticum (Fibiger & Ditlevsen, 1914) (Spirurida: Gongylonematidae) from rodents in Southeast Asia

  • Aogu Setsuda
  • Alexis Ribas
  • Kittipong Chaisiri
  • Serge Morand
  • Monidarin Chou
  • Fidelino Malbas
  • Muchammad Yunus
  • Hiroshi Sato
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Nematoda


More than a dozen Gongylonema spp. (Spirurida: Spiruroidea: Gongylonematidae) have been described from a variety of rodent hosts worldwide. Gongylonema neoplasticum (Fibiger & Ditlevsen, 1914), which dwells in the gastric mucosa of rats such as Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus), is currently regarded as a cosmopolitan nematode in accordance with global dispersion of its definitive hosts beyond Asia. To facilitate the reliable specific differentiation of local rodent Gongylonema spp. from the cosmopolitan congener, the genetic characterisation of G. neoplasticum from Asian Rattus spp. in the original endemic area should be considered since the morphological identification of Gongylonema spp. is often difficult due to variations of critical phenotypical characters, e.g. spicule lengths and numbers of caudal papillae. In the present study, morphologically identified G. neoplasticum from 114 rats of seven species from Southeast Asia were selected from archived survey materials from almost 4,500 rodents: Thailand (58 rats), Cambodia (52 rats), Laos (three rats) and Philippines (one rat). In addition, several specimens from four rats in Indonesia were used in the study. Nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) (5,649 bp) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) (818 bp) were characterised. The rDNA showed little nucleotide variation, including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The cox1 showed 24 haplotypes, with up to 15 (1.83%) nucleotide substitutions regardless of parasite origin. Considering that Rattus spp. have been shown to originate from the southern region of Asia and G. neoplasticum is their endogenous parasite, it is reasonable to propose that the present study covers a wide spectrum of the genetic diversity of G. neoplasticum, useful for both the molecular genetic speculation of the species and the molecular genetic differentiation of other local rodent Gongylonema spp. from the cosmopolitan congener.



This study was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI grants (nos. 15K07722 and 15H05261) and Grant-in-Aid for International Collaboration Research in Asia 2016 from Heiwa Nakajima Foundation (HS).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable institutional, national and international guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aogu Setsuda
    • 1
  • Alexis Ribas
    • 2
  • Kittipong Chaisiri
    • 3
  • Serge Morand
    • 4
  • Monidarin Chou
    • 5
  • Fidelino Malbas
    • 6
  • Muchammad Yunus
    • 7
  • Hiroshi Sato
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Parasitology, United Graduate School of Veterinary ScienceYamaguchi UniversityYamaguchiJapan
  2. 2.Section of Parasitology, Department of Biology, Healthcare and the Environment, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food SciencesUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Helminthology, Faculty of Tropical MedicineMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  4. 4.CNRS-CIRAD ASTRE, Faculty of Veterinary TechnologyKasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand
  5. 5.Laboratoire Rodolphe MérieuxUniversity of Health SciencesPhnom PenhCambodia
  6. 6.Research Institute for Tropical MedicineMuntinlupaPhilippines
  7. 7.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAirlangga UniversitySurabayaIndonesia

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