In this paper, a theoretical framework for Optical Wireless Communication using RGB color model with computer monitor display and digital camera is proposed. The motivation is to find a cheaper alternative to physical network switches and wired and optical cables in communication networks that can be leveraged for computer clusters, thus reducing time and costs for purchase, setup, maintenance, power consumption and cooling. Also, providing better data transfer rates, scalability and band width conservation. The framework is distinguished from related work by the use of RGB for data encoding at various bit-depths. Greater data transfer rates than existing Optical Wireless Communication systems are possible. A computer monitor displays a grid of changing colors controlled by a transmitting host. The color in a grid cell represents one or more data bits as per the RGB codes used. The RGB codes can be computed by logically partitioning the RGB cube, a geometrical representation of the RGB model. A camera on a receiving host, samples the colors to obtain the data bits. Mathematical expressions are derived to compute the RGB codes and mappings to data bits. The upper bound of the data rate is derived and compared with the well-known Shannon communication theorem. The framework is extended to include an array of digital cameras for parallel data copy in a computer cluster and the data rate is determined. Theoretically, the data rate can increase beyond the Gigabit/second realm, and into Terabit/second realm.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Daukantas P (2014) Optical wireless communications: the new “hot spots”? Opt Photonics News 25(3):34–41
Sevincer A, Bhattarai A, Bilgi M, Yuksel M, Pala N (2013) Lightnets: smart lighting and mobile optical wireless networks—a survey. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 15(4):1620–1641
Qazi S (2006) Challenges in Outdoor and Indoor Optical Wireless Communications, Proc of int conf on wireless networks (ICWN), Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, June 2006
Saadi M, Wattisuttikulkij L, Zhao Y, Sangwongngam P (2013) Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and channel models. Int J Electron Inform 2(1):1–1
Kaushal H, Jain VK, Kar S (2017) Free space optical communication. Springer, India
Uysal M and Nouri H (2014) Optical Wireless Communications–an Emerging Technology Proc of 16th Int conf on transparent optical networks (ICTON), July 2014
Perli SD, Ahmed N, and Katabi D (2010), PixNet: Interference-Free Wireless Links Using LCD-Camera Pairs, Proc of 16th Int conf on mobile computing and networking (MOBICOM), Chicago, Illinois, USA, September 2010
Haugen PR, Rychnovsky S, Husain A, Hutcheson LD (1986) Optical interconnects for high speed computing. Opt Eng 25(10):251076. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7973962
Miller DA (2000) Optical interconnects to silicon. IEEE J Select Topics Quantum Electron 6(6):1312–1317
O'Brien D, Minh HL, Zeng L, Faulkner G, Lee K, Jung D, Oh Y, Won ET (2008) Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects, SPIE Optics and Photonics. Proc. SPIE 7091 Free-Space Laser Commun VIII:709106. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.799503
Lee CG, Park CS, Kim JH, Kim DH (2007) Experimental verification of optical wireless communication link using high-brightness illumination light-emitting diodes. Opt Eng 46(12):125005
Minh HL, O'Brien DC, Faulkner GE, Zeng L, Lee K, Jung D, Oh Y (2008), High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Multiple-Resonant Equalization, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Süsstrunk S, Buckley R, Swen S (1999), Standard RGB Color Spaces, Proc. of IS&T/SID 7th Color Imaging Conference, vol 7, pp 127–134
Wikipedia (2020): The free encyclopedia, lightweight RGB color model, November 2020, (Online) URI:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGB_color_model
Chen S, Chow C (2014) Color-filter-free spatial visible light communication using RGB-LED and mobilephone camera. Opt Express 22(25):30713–30718
Cossu G, Khalid AM, Choudhury P, Corsini R, Ciaramella E (2012) 3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED. Opt Express 20(26):B501–B506
Yamazato T, Takai I, Okada H, Fujii T, Yendo T, Arai S et al (2014) Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications. IEEE Commun Mag 52(7):88–97
Wu Z, Chau J, Little TDC (2011) Modeling and Designing of a New Indoor Free Space Visible Light Communication System. Proc of 16th European Conf on networks and optical communications (NOC), pp 72–75, July 2011
Kahn JM and Barry JR (1997), Wireless infrared communications, Proc of the IEEE, vol 85, no 2, February 1997
Katabi D, Raskar R, Mohan A, and Woo G (2009), Simple LCD transmitter camera receiver data link, MIT Libraries, June 2009, (Online) URI:https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/45565
IEEE 802.15 WPANTM, 15.7 (2020) Maintenance: short-range optical wireless communications task group (TG 7m), November 2020, (Online) URI:https://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/IEEE%20802_15%20WPAN%2015_7%20Revision1%20Task%20Group.htm
Shannon CE (1998) Communication in the presence of noise. Proc of IEEE 86(2):447–457
Hranilovic S (2005) Wireless optical communication systems. Springer, Dordrecht
CSS Color module level 3 (2018), W3C Recommendation, June 2018, (Online) URI:https://www.w3.org/TR/css-color-3/
Wilburn B (2004) High performance imaging using arrays of inexpensive cameras, doctorate dissertation, Stanford University, December 2004, (Online) URI:https://graphics.stanford.edu/~wilburn/wilburn_thesis.pdf
Gupta S and Jaynes C (2005) Active pursuit tracking in a projector-camera system with application to augmented reality, Proc of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)–Workshops, vol 1, 2005
Pinhanez C (2001), Using a steerable projector and camera to transform surfaces into interactive displays, extended abstracts on human factors in computing systems (SIGCHI), pp 369–370, 2001
Doany F (2012), Power-efficient, high-bandwidth optical interconnects for high performance computing, presentation, IBM T J Watson research center, August 2012, (Online) URI:https://docplayer.net/33525660-Power-efficient-high-bandwidth-optical-interconnects-for-high-performance-computing.html
Femto-photography: visualizing photons in motion at a trillion frames per second, December 2020, (Online) URI:https://web.media.mit.edu/~raskar/trillionfps/
ISO, information technology-automatic identification and data capture techniques-QR code bar code symbology specification, ISO/IEC 18004:2015, February 2015, (Online) https://www.iso.org/standard/62021.html
ISO (2006), information technology - automatic identification and data capture techniques - data matrix bar code symbology specification, ISO/IEC 16022:2006, September 2006, (Online) https://www.iso.org/standard/44230.html
GitHub, Zxing, December 2020 (Online) https://github.com/zxing/zxing
Liu J, Mamidala AR and Panda DK (2004), MPI, fast and scalable MPI-level broadcast using infiniband’s hardware multicast, Proc of 18th Int’l. Parallel and distributed processing symposium (IPDPS), Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, April 2004
PC16550D universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter with FIFOs, National Semiconductor, June 1995, (Online) URI:https://www.scs.stanford.edu/10wi-cs140/pintos/specs/pc16550d.pdf
Wolberg G (1990) Digital image warping IEEE computer society press, 1990
Hilario MN and Cooperstock JR (2004) Occlusion detection for front-projected interactive displays, Proc of pervasive computing and advances in pervasive computing, Austrian computer society, 2004
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Pereira, A.L. Optical wireless communication using camera and RGB display. J Supercomput (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-021-03633-7
- Optical wireless communication
- Digital camera
- RGB display
- Computer cluster
- Parallel data copy