NNBlocks: a Blockly framework for AI computing

Abstract

Deep learning compiler tool, Tensor Virtual Machine (TVM), has excellent deployment, compilation, and optimization capabilities supported by the industry following the vigorous growth in neural networks (NN). It has a unified intermediate representation (IR) format that can provide efficient compilation and portability. However, its high operational complexity requires considerable effort in development. For beginners with programming backgrounds, a new and easy-to-use design approach is needed. This paper proposes a visual concept approach that can execute artificial intelligence (AI) computing using block-based tools with AI knowledge. This research also develops a web-based NNBlocks framework that uses this approach to integrate with TVM. We conduct experiments to evaluate this approach: (1) interviewees assessed intuition through operating. (2) Interviewees answered a Usability Metric for User Experience (UMUX) to evaluate usability. (3) Interviewees answered the significance of the theme survey assessment. (4) The impact on the system was evaluated through experiments. The results indicate that interviewees respond positively to the intuitiveness of the framework. The usability evaluation of UMUX meets expectations. The theme survey shows that the framework is significant for AI learning. The experiments of the impact indicate that the framework will not burden the system.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_deep-learning_software.

  2. 2.

    https://onnx.ai.

  3. 3.

    https://developers.google.com/blockly.

  4. 4.

    https://www.tensorflow.org/tensorboard.

  5. 5.

    https://github.com/lutzroeder/netron.

  6. 6.

    https://nodered.org.

  7. 7.

    https://www.lego.com/en-us/themes/mindstorms.

  8. 8.

    https://github.com/BlocklyDuino/BlocklyDuino.

  9. 9.

    https://appinventor.mit.edu.

  10. 10.

    https://blockly-demo.appspot.com/static/demos/blockfactory/index.html.

  11. 11.

    https://github.com/onnx/models.

  12. 12.

    https://mxnet.apache.org/api/python/docs/api/gluon/model_zoo/index.html.

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Acknowledgements

The work is supported by the Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology under Grant No.: MOST 107-2221-E-007-005-MY3.

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Correspondence to Jenq-Kuen Lee.

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Chen, TL., Chen, YR., Yu, MS. et al. NNBlocks: a Blockly framework for AI computing. J Supercomput (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-021-03631-9

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Keywords

  • Blockly
  • Visualization
  • Visual block
  • Scheduling optimization
  • Intermediate representation
  • Neural network