Strength of Materials

, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp 41–46 | Cite as

Assessment of the Low-Cycle Strain-Induced Martensite Transformation in AISI 316 Stainless Steel by Magnetic and Acoustic Nondestructive Methods

  • C. S. Kim

The strain-induced martensite transformation during the low-cycle fatigue in austenitic AISI 316 stainless steel was investigated by magnetic and acoustic nondestructive methods. The low-cycle fatigue test was performed at various strain amplitudes. The volume fraction of α′-martensite was determined for the fatigue-failed specimens by magnetic property measurements with further microstructure detection. The cyclic hardening behavior was discussed in terms of the α′-martensite transformation. The volume fraction of α′-martensite was growing with the strain amplitude. An increase in the α′-martensite fraction was evaluated with the nonlinear ultrasonic parameter. The α′-martensite fraction may distort the lattice in austenitic stainless steel, resulting in the distortion of an ultrasonic wave. From this distortion, superharmonics may be generated with the α′-martensite nucleation, which strongly depends on the strain amplitude. The relationship between nonlinear acoustic characteristic and the volume fraction of α′-martensite is linear.


strain-induced martensite low-cycle fatigue acoustic nonlinearity stainless steel super-harmonics 



This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1D1A3B03028681).


  1. 1.
    C. W. Ziemian, R. D. Ziemian, and K. V. Haile, “Characterization of stiffness degradation caused by fatigue damage of additive manufactured parts,” Mater. Design, 109, 209–218 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. J. Leber, M. Niffenegger, and B. Tirbonod, “Microstructural aspects of low cycle fatigued austenitic stainless tube and pipe steels,” Mater. Charact., 58, No. 10, 1006–1015 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. S. Ryu, C. S. Kim, U. B. Baek, and J. S. Lee, “Nondestructive evaluation for remanent life of aged 12Cr ferrite heat resisting steel by reversible permeability,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 326, 257–260 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. A. Drewry and P. D. Wilcox, “One-dimensional time-domain finite-element modelling of nonlinear wave propagation for non-destructive evaluation,” NDT & E Int., 61, 45–52 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Viswanath, B. P. C. Rao, S. Mahadevan, et al., “Nondestructive assessment of tensile properties of cold worked AISI type 304 stainless steel using nonlinear ultrasonic technique,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 211, No. 3, 538–544 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Q. Cai, J. Z. Sun, C. J. Liu, et al., “Relationship between dislocation density in P91 steel and its nonlinear ultrasonic parameter,” J. Iron Steel Res. Int., 22, 1024–1030 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringChosun UniversityGwangjuRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations