Wu & Tsai’s one directional pixel value differencing (PVD), and Khodaei & Faez’s two directional PVD are detected by one directional pixel difference histogram (PDH) analysis. Researchers proposed three directional PVD using 2 × 2 size blocks, five directional PVD using 2 × 3 or 3 × 2 size pixel blocks, and 8 directional PVD utilizing 3 × 3 size pixel blocks. These are known as multi-directional PVD (MD PVD) techniques. It has been claimed by researchers that MD PVD is not detected by PDH analysis. This paper proposes a multi-directional PDH (MDPDH) technique which can detect MD PVD techniques. In fact, the proposed MDPDH technique checks one direction in 1 × 2 size blocks, two directions in 1 × 3 size blocks, three directions in 2 × 2 size pixel blocks, five directions in 2 × 3 or 3 × 2 size pixel blocks, and eight directions in 3 × 3 size blocks. This MDPDH technique comprises of five different algorithms. The experimental results reveal that this proposed MDPDH technique is capable of detecting all kinds of MD PVD techniques.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Wu, D. C., & Tsai, W. H. (2003). A steganographic method for images by pixel value differencing. Pattern Recognition Letters, 24(9–10), 1613–1626.
Chang, K.-C., Chang, C.-P., Huang, P. S., & Tu, T.-M. (2008). A novel image steganographic method using tri-way pixel-value differencing. Journal of multimedia, 3(2), 37–44.
Lee, Y. P., Lee, J. C., Chen, W. K., Chang, K. C., Su, J., & Chang, C. P. (2012). High-payload image hiding with quality recovery using tri-way pixel-value differencing. Information Sciences, 191, 214–225.
Zhang, X., & Wang, S. (2004). Vulnerability of pixel-value differencing steganography to histogram analysis and modification for enhanced security. Pattern Recognition Letters, 25(3), 331–339.
Luo, W., Huang, F., & Huang, J. (2011). A more secure steganography based on adaptive pixel-value differencing scheme. Multimedia tools and applications, 52(2–3), 407–430.
Swain, G. (2016). Adaptive pixel value differencing steganography using both vertical and horizontal edges. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 75(21), 13541–13556.
Pradhan, A., Sekhar, K. R., & Swain, G. (2017). Adaptive PVD Steganography using horizontal, vertical, and diagonal edges in six-pixel blocks. Security and Communication Networks, 2017, 1–13.
Balasubramanian, C., Selvakumar, S., & Geetha, S. (2014). High payload image steganography with reduced distortion using octonary pixel pairing scheme. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 73(3), 2223–2245.
Pradhan, A., Sekhar, K. R., & Swain, G. (2016). Digital image steganography based on seven way pixel value Differencing. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(37), 1–11.
Chen, J. (2014). A PVD-based data hiding method with histogram preserving using pixel pair matching. Signal Processing: Image Communication, 29(3), 375–384.
Hussain, M., Wahab, A. W. A., Ho, A. T. S., Javed, N., & Jung, K.-H. (2017). A data hiding scheme using parity-bit pixel value differencing and improved rightmost digit replacement. Signal Processing: Image Communication, 50, 44–57.
Tseng, H. W., & Leng, H. S. (2013). A steganographic method based on pixel-value differencing and the perfect square number. Journal of Applied Mathematics, 2013, 1–8.
Swain, G. (2019). Very high capacity image steganography technique using quotient value differencing and LSB substitution. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 44(4), 2995–3004.
Hong, W., Chen, T. S., & Luo, C. W. (2012). Data embedding using pixel value differencing and diamond encoding with multiple-base notational system. Journal of Systems and Software, 85(5), 1166–1175.
Hameed, M. A., Aly, S., & Hassaballah, M. (2018). An efficient data hiding method based on adaptive directional pixel value differencing (ADPVD). Multimedia Tools and Applications, 77(12), 14705–14723.
Hosam, O., & Halima, N. B. (2016). Adaptive block-based pixel value differencing steganography. Security and Communication Networks, 9, 5036–5050.
Wu, H. C., Wu, N. I., Tsai, C. S., & Hwang, M. S. (2005). Image steganographic scheme based on pixel-value differencing and LSB replacement methods. IEE Proceedings-Vision, Image and Signal Processing, 152(5), 611–615.
Yang, C. H., Weng, C. Y., Wang, S. J., & Sun, H. M. (2010). Varied PVD+ LSB evading detection programs to spatial domain in data embedding systems. Journal of Systems and Software, 83(10), 1635–1643.
Swain, G. (2014). Digital image steganography using nine-pixel differencing and modified LSB substitution. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 7(9), 1444–1450.
Darabkh, K. A., Al-Dhamari, A. K., & Jafar, I. F. (2017). A new steganographic algorithm based on multi directional PVD and modified LSB. Information Technology and Control, 46(1), 16–36.
Khodaei, M., & Faez, K. (2012). New adaptive steganographic method using least significant-bit substitution and pixel-value differencing. IET Image Processing, 6(6), 677–686.
Swain, G. (2016). A steganographic method combining LSB substitution and PVD in a block. Procedia Computer Science, 85, 39–44.
Swain, G. (2018). Digital image steganography using eight directional PVD against RS analysis and PDH analysis. Advances in Multimedia, 2018, 1–13.
Shukla, A. K., Singh, A., Singh, B., & Kumar, A. (2018). A secure and high-capacity data-hiding method using compression, encryption and optimized pixel value differencing. IEEE Access, 6, 51130–51139.
Kalita, M., Tuithung, T., & Majumder, S. (2019). An adaptive color image steganography method using adjacent pixel value differencing and LSB substitution technique. Cryptologia, 43(5), 414–437.
Arya, M. S., Rani, M., & Bedi, C. S. (2016). Improved capacity image steganography algorithm using 16-pixel differencing with n-bit LSB substitution for RGB images. International Journal of Electrical & Computer Engineering, 6(6), 2735–2741.
Sahu, A. K., & Swain, G. (2019). Data hiding using adaptive LSB and PVD technique resisting PDH and RS analysis. International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics, 11(4), 458–476.
Jung, K. H. (2010). High-capacity steganographic method based on pixel-value differencing and LSB replacement methods. The Imaging Science Journal, 58(4), 213–221.
Malik, A., Sikka, G., & Verma, H. K. (2015). A modified pixel-value differencing image steganographic scheme with least significant bit substitution method. International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 7(4), 68–74.
Hussain, M., Wahab, A. W. A., Javed, N., & Jung, K.-H. (2018). Recursive Information Hiding Scheme Through LSB, PVD Shift, and MPE. IETE Technical Review, 35(1), 53–63.
Hussain, M., Wahab, A. W. A., Idris, Y. I. B., Ho, A. T. S., & Jung, K.-H. (2018). Image steganography in spatial domain: A survey. Signal Processing: Image Communication, 65, 46–66.
Sahu, A. K., & Sahu, M. (2020). Digital image steganography and steganalysis: A journey of the past three decades. Open Computer Science, 10, 296–342.
Swain, G. (2018). High capacity image steganography using modified LSB substitution and PVD against pixel difference histogram analysis. Security and Communication Networks, 2018, 1–14.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Sonar, R., Swain, G. Multi-Directional Pixel Difference Histogram Analysis Based on Pixel Blocks of Different Sizes. Sens Imaging 22, 11 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11220-021-00334-6
- PDH analysis
- MDPDH analysis