Multi-Directional Pixel Difference Histogram Analysis Based on Pixel Blocks of Different Sizes


Wu & Tsai’s one directional pixel value differencing (PVD), and Khodaei & Faez’s two directional PVD are detected by one directional pixel difference histogram (PDH) analysis. Researchers proposed three directional PVD using 2 × 2 size blocks, five directional PVD using 2 × 3 or 3 × 2 size pixel blocks, and 8 directional PVD utilizing 3 × 3 size pixel blocks. These are known as multi-directional PVD (MD PVD) techniques. It has been claimed by researchers that MD PVD is not detected by PDH analysis. This paper proposes a multi-directional PDH (MDPDH) technique which can detect MD PVD techniques. In fact, the proposed MDPDH technique checks one direction in 1 × 2 size blocks, two directions in 1 × 3 size blocks, three directions in 2 × 2 size pixel blocks, five directions in 2 × 3 or 3 × 2 size pixel blocks, and eight directions in 3 × 3 size blocks. This MDPDH technique comprises of five different algorithms. The experimental results reveal that this proposed MDPDH technique is capable of detecting all kinds of MD PVD techniques.

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Correspondence to Gandharba Swain.

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Sonar, R., Swain, G. Multi-Directional Pixel Difference Histogram Analysis Based on Pixel Blocks of Different Sizes. Sens Imaging 22, 11 (2021).

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  • Steganography
  • Steganalysis
  • PDH analysis
  • MDPDH analysis
  • PVD