Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 411–426 | Cite as

Measuring teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy: relationship with realized interpersonal aspirations, classroom management efficacy and age

  • Ietje Veldman
  • Wilfried Admiraal
  • Tim Mainhard
  • Theo Wubbels
  • Jan van Tartwijk


In this study, we present the development and validation of an instrument for measuring teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy: the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction-Self-Efficacy (QTI-SE). We used the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction as a basis to construct items. Current scales on teacher self-efficacy in classroom management cover interpersonal self-efficacy mostly indirect or they specifically focus on the efficacy to convey relatively high levels of teacher agency (e.g., the teacher’s ability to maintain or restore classroom discipline). The QTI-SE is an instrument measuring teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy more comprehensively and in a reliable and valid way.


Teacher–student relationships Teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy Measurement teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy 


  1. Armor, D., Conroy-Oseguera, P., Cox, M., King, N., McDonnell, L., & Pascal, A. (1976). Analysis of the school preferred reading programs in selected Los Angeles minority schools (Report no. R-2007-LAUSD). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for creating self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 307–337). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Bong, M. (2006). Asking the right question: How confident are you could successfully perform these tasks? In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 287–305). Greenwich, CT: In-formation Age.Google Scholar
  6. Brekelmans, M. (1989). Interpersonal teacher behaviour in the classroom. Utrecht: W.C.C. (in Dutch).Google Scholar
  7. Brekelmans, M. (2010). Klimaatverandering in de klas. Rede uitgesproken bij de aanvaarding van het ambt van hoogleraar ‘Onderwijskunde, in het bijzonder Leren in interactie’. Universiteit Utrecht.Google Scholar
  8. Brekelmans, M., Sleegers, P., & Fraser, B. (2000). Teaching for active learning. In R. J. Simons, J. van der Linden, & T. Duffy (Eds.), New learning (pp. 227–242). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, T., & Van Tartwijk, J. (2005). Teacher–student relationships across the teaching career. International Journal of Educational Research, 43(1), 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Borgogni, L., & Steca, P. (2003). Efficacy beliefs as determinants of teachers’ job satisfaction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 821–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chesnut, S. R., & Burley, H. (2015). Self-efficacy as a predictor of commitment to the teaching profession: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 15, 751–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coladarci, T. (1992). Teachers’ sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching. The Journal of Experimental Education, 60(4), 323–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 10(7), 1–9.Google Scholar
  14. Day, C., Stobart, G., Sammons, P., Kington, A., Qing, G., & Smees, R. (2006). Variations in teachers’ work, lives and effectiveness. London: Department for Education and Skills.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dellinger, A. M., Bobbet, J. J., Olivier, D. F., & Ellet, C. D. (2008). Measuring teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs: Development and use of the TEBS-Self. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 751–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Den Brok, P., Brekelmans, M., & Wubbels, T. (2004). Interpersonal teacher behaviour and student outcomes. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15, 407–442. doi: 10.1080/09243450512331383262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Den Brok, P., Brekelmans, M., & Wubbels, T. (2006). Multilevel issues in research using students’ perceptions of learning environments: The case of the questionnaire on teacher interaction. Learning Environments Research, 9, 199–213. doi: 10.1007/s10984-006-9013-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fournier, M. A., Moskowitz, D. S., & Zuroff, D. (2011). Origins and applications of the interpersonal circumplex. In L. M. Horowitz & S. Strack (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal psychology: Theory, research, assessment and therapeutic interventions (pp. 57–74). Hobroken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Friedman, I. A. (2003). Self-efficacy and burnout in teaching: The importance of interpersonal-relations efficacy. Social Psychology of Education, 6(3), 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goh, S., & Fraser, B. J. (2000). Teacher interpersonal teacher behaviour and elementary students’ outcomes. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 14, 216–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grayson, J. L., & Alvarez, H. K. (2008). School climate factors relating to teacher burnout: A mediator model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1349–1363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gu, Q. (2014). The role of relational resilience in teachers’ career-long commitment and effectiveness. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 20(5), 502–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guskey, T. R. (1982). Differences in teachers’ perceptions of personal control of positive versus negative student learning outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 7, 70–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Guskey, T. R. (1988). Teacher efficacy, self-concept, and attitudes toward the implementation of instructional innovation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hansen, D. T. (1995). The call to teach. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  26. Horowitz, L. M., & Strack, S. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of interpersonal theory: Theory, research, assessment, and therapeutic interventions. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  27. Kiesler, D. J. (1983). The 1982 interpersonal circle: A taxonomy for complementarity in human transactions. Psychological Review, 90, 185–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Klassen, R. M., & Chui, M. (2010). Effects on teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 741–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Klassen, R. M., Tze, V. M. C., Betts, S. M., & Gordon, K. A. (2011). Teacher efficacy research 1998–2009: Signs of progress or unfulfilled promise? Educational Psychology Review, 23(1), 21–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kunter, M., Frenzel, A., Nagy, G., Baumert, J., & Pekrun, R. (2011). Teacher enthusiasm: Dimensionality and context specificity. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mainhard, T. (2015). Liking a tough teacher—Interpersonal characteristics of teaching and students’ achievement goals. School Psychology International, 36(6), 559–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mainhard, M. T., Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, T., & den Brok, P. J. (2008). Leraren in een nieuwe klas: de eerste maanden van een nieuw schooljaar [Teachers in a new class: The first months of a new school year]. Pedagogische Studiën, 85(3), 157–173.Google Scholar
  33. OECD. (2005). Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining effective teacher. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pennings, H. J. M., Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, T., van der Want, A. C., Claessens, L. C. A., & Van Tartwijk, J. (2014). A nonlinear dynamical systems approach to real-time teacher behavior: Differences between teachers. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 18(1), 23–45.Google Scholar
  35. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 611–625.Google Scholar
  36. Sinclair, C., Dowson, M., & Mcinerney, D. (2006). Motivations to teach: Psychometric perspectives across the first semester of teacher education. Teachers College Record, 108, 1132–1154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Siwatu, K. O. (2007). Preservice teachers′ culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 1086–1101.Google Scholar
  38. Spilt, J. M., Koomen, H. M. Y., & Thijs, J. T. (2011). Teacher wellbeing: The importance of teacher–student relationships. Educational Psychology Review, 23, 457–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy capturing: An elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(2001), 783–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. W. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(6), 944–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Veldman, I., Admiraal, W., Van Tartwijk, J., Mainhard, T., & Wubbels, T. (2016). Veteran teachers’ job satisfaction as a function of personal demands and resources in the relationships with their students. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 22(8), 913–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Veldman, I., Van Tartwijk, J., Brekelmans, M., & Wubbels, T. (2013). Job satisfaction and teacher–student relationships across the teaching career. Four case studies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 32, 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vieluf, S., Kunter, M., & Van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2013). Teacher self-efficacy in cross-national perspective. Teaching and Teacher Education, 35, 92–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wheatley, K. F. (2000). Positive teacher efficacy as an obstacle to educational reform. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 34(1), 14–27.Google Scholar
  45. Wheatley, K. F. (2002). The potential benefits of teacher efficacy doubts for educational reform. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wiggins, J. S. (1979). A psychological taxonomy of trait-descriptive terms: The interpersonal domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 395–412.Google Scholar
  47. Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Burke Spero, R. (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 343–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Davis, H. A. (2006). Teacher self-efficacy and its influence on the achievement of adolescents. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 117–137). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.Google Scholar
  49. Wubbels, T., Brekelmans, M., Den Brok, P., Levy, J., Mainhard, T., & Van Tartwijk, J. (2012). Let’s make things better: Developments in research on interpersonal relationships in education. In T. Wubbels, P. Den Brok, J. Van Tartwijk, & J. Levy (Eds.), interpersonal relationships in education (pp. 225–250). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wubbels, T., Brekelmans, M., den Brok, P., & van Tartwijk, J. (2006). An interpersonal perspective on classroom management in secondary classrooms in the Netherlands. In C. Evertson & C. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues (pp. 1161–1191). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  51. Wubbels, T., Brekelmans, M., Den Brok, P., Wijsman, L., Mainhard, T., & Van Tartwijk, J. (2014). Teacher–student relationships and classroom management. In E. Emmer & E. J. Sabornie (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management (pp. 363–386). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Wubbels, Th., Créton, H. A., & Hooymayers, H. P. (1985). Discipline problems of beginning teachers: Interactional teacher behaviour mapped out. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association Research Association (AERA).Google Scholar
  53. Zee, M., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2016). Teacher Self-Efficacy and its effects on classroom processes, student academic adjustment, and teacher well-being: A syntheses of 40 years of research. Review of Educational research, 86, 1–35.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationAmsterdam University of Applied SciencesAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.ICLON Leiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Faculty Social and Behaviour SciencesUniversity UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations