Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 445–470 | Cite as

Supporting gender equality in extracurricular activities and the impact on female bullying victimization in school



This study examines gender differences in the extent to which U.S. high school students are bullied in connection with participation in and attitudes towards extracurricular activities. Previous research suggests that students are bullied when their participation exhibits gender abnormal performances of masculinity or femininity, but less is known about the relationship between attitudes and victimization. Through the analysis of quantitative survey data this study finds that female students do not face increased bullying for being competitive athletes. However, when students express attitudes that support gender equality in athletics they are more likely to be bullied. Female victimization accounts for most of this effect relative to male students which provides evidence of a double-standard. Girls may be punished by peers for supporting equality while boys do not face the same risk. These findings shed light on the complicated picture of progress and stagnation in efforts towards gender equality in the U.S.


Gender Bullying Adolescence Double-standards Egalitarian attitudes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Auburn University at MontgomeryMontgomeryUSA

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