Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 329–345 | Cite as

Children’s implicit and explicit gender stereotypes about mathematics and reading ability

  • Elizabeth A. Nowicki
  • Joel Lopata


Study objectives were to clarify children’s gender-based implicit and explicit mathematics and reading stereotypes, and to determine if implicit and explicit measures were related or represented distinct constructs. One hundred and fifty-six boys and girls (mean age 11.3 years) from six elementary schools completed math or reading stereotype measures. Results for the implicit measures showed that children believed their own gender was superior in mathematics ability, and that girls but not boys believed that girls were better in reading. Explicit measures revealed that girls but not boys believed they were superior at math, and that girls and boys believed girls were better readers than boys. Implicit and explicit measures were not related. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies on children’s mathematics and reading gender stereotypes and large scale tests of mathematics and reading achievement. Educational and research implications are discussed.


Implicit and explicit gender stereotypes School-aged children Mathematics and reading achievement and ability 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationWestern UniversityLondonCanada

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