Table 3 Operation modes of MMS

From: Mars Mineralogical Spectrometer (MMS) on the Tianwen-1 Mission

Detection Operation mode Description
Nadir observation 3-sample-hyperspectral mode (MMS-D-3) Spatially: 16× cross-track pixels and 16× along-track pixels are binned to form a sample. In cross-track direction, there are 26 samples altogether. Three samples are selected from the 26 samples via instructions.
Spectrally: 576 bands (575 bands for spectral, 1 band for smear correction).
The data frame size after data preprocessing is 3 samples × 575 bands.
26-sample-hyperspectral mode (MMS-D-26) Spatially: 16× cross-track pixels and 16× along-track pixels are binned to form a sample. In cross-track direction, there are 26 samples altogether: 25 samples for targets, 1 sample for dark current.
Spectrally: 576 bands (575 bands for spectral, 1 band for smear correction).
The data frame size after data preprocessing is 25 samples × 575 bands.
208-sample-multispectral imaging mode (MMS-D-208) Spatially: 2× cross-track pixels and 2× along-track pixels are binned to form a sample. In cross-track direction, there are 208 samples altogether: 207 samples for targets, 1 sample for dark current.
Spectrally: 72 bands (71 bands for spectral, 1 band for smear correction).
The data frame size after data preprocessing is 207 samples × 71 bands.
104-sample-multispectral imaging mode (MMS-D-104) Spatially: 4× cross-track pixels and 4× along-track pixels are binned to form a sample. In cross-track direction, there are 104 samples altogether: 103 samples for targets, 1 sample for dark current.
Spectrally: 72 bands (71 bands for spectral, 1 band for smear correction).
The data frame size after data preprocessing is 103 samples × 71 bands.
52-sample-multispectral imaging mode (MMS-D-52) Spatially: 8× cross-track pixels and 8× along-track pixels are binned to form a sample. In cross-track direction, there are 52 samples altogether: 51 samples for targets, 1 sample for dark current.
Spectrally: 72 bands (71 bands for spectral, 1 band for smear correction).
The data frame size after data preprocessing is 51 samples × 71 bands.
Geometric calibration imaging mode (MMS-C-G) Spatially: No pixels binned in cross-track and along-track, 512 samples (416 samples for targets, others for dark current and radiometric calibration).
Spectrally: 2 bands (1 band for V-NIR and the other band for N-MIR).
The data frame size after data preprocessing is 416 samples × 2 bands.
Full-frame imaging mode (MMS-D-512) Spatially: No pixels are binned in cross-track or along-track, 512 samples (416 samples for targets, others for dark current and radiometric calibration).
Spectrally: 576 bands (575 bands for spectral, 1 band for smear correction).
The data frame size after data preprocessing is 416 samples × 575 bands.
In-flight calibration Integrating sphere mode (MMS-C-L) Spatially: 1 sample, average for every 16 acquisitions.
Spectrally: 576 bands (575 bands for spectral, 1 band for smear correction).
3 groups of light turning on status, 3 group of turning off status
Solar observation mode (MMS-C-S) Spatially: 1 sample, average for every 16 acquisitions.
Spectrally: 576 bands (575 bands for spectral, 1 band for smear correction).
Dark current reference (MMS-DC) Spatially: 1 sample, average for every 16 acquisitions.
Spectrally: 576 bands (575 bands for spectral, 1 band for smear correction).
Space observation mode (MMS-C-FD) Spatially: No pixels are binned in cross-track or along-track, 512 samples (for full frame dark background).
Spectrally: 576 bands (575 bands for spectral, 1 band for smear correction).