Solar Physics

, 293:61 | Cite as

Detection of Quasi-Periodic Pulsations in Solar EUV Time Series

  • M. Dominique
  • A. N. Zhukov
  • L. Dolla
  • A. Inglis
  • G. Lapenta


Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are intrinsically connected to the mechanism of solar flares. They are regularly observed in the impulsive phase of flares since the 1970s. In the past years, the studies of QPPs regained interest with the advent of a new generation of soft X-ray/extreme ultraviolet radiometers that pave the way for statistical surveys. Since the amplitude of QPPs in these wavelengths is rather small, detecting them implies that the overall trend of the time series needs to be removed before applying any Fourier or wavelet transform. This detrending process is known to produce artificial detection of periods that must then be distinguished from real ones. In this paper, we propose a set of criteria to help identify real periods and discard artifacts. We apply these criteria to data taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)/ESP onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA) onboard the PRoject for On-Board Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) to search for QPPs in flares stronger than M5.0 that occurred during Solar Cycle 24.


Solar flares Quasi-periodic pulsations Wavelet EUV 



LYRA is a project of the Centre Spatial de Liège, the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, and the Royal Observatory of Belgium funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) and by the Swiss Bundesamt für Bildung und Wissenschaft. The work by M. Dominique, L. Dolla, and A.N. Zhukov is funded by the Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office (IAP P7/08 CHARM) and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office through the ESA-PRODEX programme. The wavelet software was provided by C. Torrence and G. Compo and is available at . The authors would like to thank the anonymous referee for a careful review and valuable suggestions.

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


  1. Aschwanden, M.J.: 1987, Theory of radio pulsations in coronal loops. Solar Phys. 111, 113. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Auchère, F., Froment, C., Bocchialini, K., Buchlin, E., Solomon, J.: 2016, On the Fourier and wavelet analysis of coronal time series. Astrophys. J. 825, 110. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brosius, J.W., Daw, A.N.: 2015, Quasi-periodic fluctuations and chromospheric evaporation in a solar flare ribbon observed by IRIS. Astrophys. J. 810, 45. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brosius, J.W., Daw, A.N., Inglis, A.R.: 2016, Quasi-periodic fluctuations and chromospheric evaporation in a solar flare ribbon observed by Hinode/EIS, IRIS, and RHESSI. Astrophys. J. 830, 101. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cho, I.-H., Cho, K.-S., Nakariakov, V.M., Kim, S., Kumar, P.: 2016, Comparison of damped oscillations in solar and stellar X-ray flares. Astrophys. J. 830, 110. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chowdhury, P., Srivastava, A.K., Dwivedi, B.N., Sych, R., Moon, Y.-J.: 2015, Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare. Adv. Space Res. 56, 2769. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Pontieu, B., Title, A.M., Lemen, J.R., Kushner, G.D., Akin, D.J., Allard, B., Berger, T., Boerner, P., Cheung, M., Chou, C., Drake, J.F., Duncan, D.W., Freeland, S., Heyman, G.F., Hoffman, C., Hurlburt, N.E., Lindgren, R.W., Mathur, D., Rehse, R., Sabolish, D., Seguin, R., Schrijver, C.J., Tarbell, T.D., Wülser, J.-P., Wolfson, C.J., Yanari, C., Mudge, J., Nguyen-Phuc, N., Timmons, R., van Bezooijen, R., Weingrod, I., Brookner, R., Butcher, G., Dougherty, B., Eder, J., Knagenhjelm, V., Larsen, S., Mansir, D., Phan, L., Boyle, P., Cheimets, P.N., DeLuca, E.E., Golub, L., Gates, R., Hertz, E., McKillop, S., Park, S., Perry, T., Podgorski, W.A., Reeves, K., Saar, S., Testa, P., Tian, H., Weber, M., Dunn, C., Eccles, S., Jaeggli, S.A., Kankelborg, C.C., Mashburn, K., Pust, N., Springer, L., Carvalho, R., Kleint, L., Marmie, J., Mazmanian, E., Pereira, T.M.D., Sawyer, S., Strong, J., Worden, S.P., Carlsson, M., Hansteen, V.H., Leenaarts, J., Wiesmann, M., Aloise, J., Chu, K.-C., Bush, R.I., Scherrer, P.H., Brekke, P., Martinez-Sykora, J., Lites, B.W., McIntosh, S.W., Uitenbroek, H., Okamoto, T.J., Gummin, M.A., Auker, G., Jerram, P., Pool, P., Waltham, N.: 2014, The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Solar Phys. 289, 2733. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dennis, B.R., Tolbert, A.K., Inglis, A., Ireland, J., Wang, T., Holman, G.D., Hayes, L.A., Gallagher, P.T.: 2017, Detection and interpretation of long-lived X-ray quasi-periodic pulsations in the X-class solar flare on 2013 May 14. Astrophys. J. 836, 84. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dolla, L., Marqué, C., Seaton, D.B., Van Doorsselaere, T., Dominique, M., Berghmans, D., Cabanas, C., De Groof, A., Schmutz, W., Verdini, A., West, M.J., Zender, J., Zhukov, A.N.: 2012, Time delays in quasi-periodic pulsations observed during the X2.2 solar flare on 2011 February 15. Astrophys. J. Lett. 749, L16. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dominique, M., Hochedez, J.-F., Schmutz, W., Dammasch, I.E., Shapiro, A.I., Kretzschmar, M., Zhukov, A.N., Gillotay, D., Stockman, Y., BenMoussa, A.: 2013, The LYRA instrument onboard PROBA2: Description and in-flight performance. Solar Phys. 286, 21. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gilman, D.L., Fuglister, F.J., Mitchell, J.M. Jr.: 1963, On the power spectrum of ‘red noise’. J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 182. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guidoni, S.E., DeVore, C.R., Karpen, J.T., Lynch, B.J.: 2016, Magnetic-island contraction and particle acceleration in simulated eruptive solar flares. Astrophys. J. 820, 60. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hayes, L.A., Gallagher, P.T., Dennis, B.R., Ireland, J., Inglis, A.R., Ryan, D.F.: 2016, Quasi-periodic pulsations during the impulsive and decay phases of an X-class flare. Astrophys. J. Lett. 827, L30. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Inglis, A.R., Ireland, J., Dominique, M.: 2015, Quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares: Re-evaluating their nature in the context of power-law flare Fourier spectra. Astrophys. J. 798, 108. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Inglis, A.R., Ireland, J., Dennis, B.R., Hayes, L., Gallagher, P.: 2016, A large-scale search for evidence of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares. Astrophys. J. 833, 284. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kane, S.R., Kai, K., Kosugi, T., Enome, S., Landecker, P.B., McKenzie, D.L.: 1983, Acceleration and confinement of energetic particles in the 1980 June 7 solar flare. Astrophys. J. 271, 376. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kupriyanova, E.G., Melnikov, V.F., Nakariakov, V.M., Shibasaki, K.: 2010, Types of microwave quasi-periodic pulsations in single flaring loops. Solar Phys. 267, 329. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McLaughlin, J.A., Nakariakov, V.M., Dominique, M., Jelínek, P., Takasao, S.: 2018, Modelling quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. Space Sci. Rev. 214, 45. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nakariakov, V.M., Melnikov, V.F.: 2009, Quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares. Space Sci. Rev. 149, 119. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nakariakov, V.M., Verwichte, E.: 2005, Coronal waves and oscillations. Living Rev. Solar Phys. 2, 3. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ning, Z.: 2017, One-minute quasi-periodic pulsations seen in a solar flare. Solar Phys. 292, 11. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Parks, G.K., Winckler, J.R.: 1969, Sixteen-second periodic pulsations observed in the correlated microwave and energetic X-ray emission from a solar flare. Astrophys. J. Lett. 155, L117. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pugh, C.E., Broomhall, A.-M., Nakariakov, V.M.: 2017, Significance testing for quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. Astron. Astrophys. 602, A47. DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Simões, P.J.A., Hudson, H.S., Fletcher, L.: 2015, Soft X-ray pulsations in solar flares. Solar Phys. 290, 3625. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Takasao, S., Shibata, K.: 2016, Above-the-loop-top oscillation and quasi-periodic coronal wave generation in solar flares. Astrophys. J. 823, 150. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tan, B., Tan, C.: 2012, Microwave quasi-periodic pulsation with millisecond bursts in a solar flare on 2011 August 9. Astrophys. J. 749, 28. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tian, H., Young, P.R., Reeves, K.K., Wang, T., Antolin, P., Chen, B., He, J.: 2016, Global sausage oscillation of solar flare loops detected by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. Astrophys. J. Lett. 823, L16. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Torrence, C., Compo, G.P.: 1998, A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 61. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Torrence, C., Webster, P.J.: 1999, Interdecadal changes in the ENSO–monsoon system. J. Climate 12, 2679. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Van Doorsselaere, T., Kupriyanova, E.G., Yuan, D.: 2016, Quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares: An overview of recent results (invited review). Solar Phys. 291, 3143. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Van Doorsselaere, T., De Groof, A., Zender, J., Berghmans, D., Goossens, M.: 2011, LYRA observations of two oscillation modes in a single flare. Astrophys. J. 740, 90. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vaughan, S.: 2005, A simple test for periodic signals in red noise. Astron. Astrophys. 431, 391. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Woods, T., Eparvier, F., Hock, R., Jones, A., Woodraska, D., Judge, D., Didkovsky, L., Lean, J., Mariska, J., Warren, H., McMullin, D., Chamberlin, P., Berthiaume, G., Bailey, S., Fuller-Rowell, T., Sojka, J., Tobiska, W., Viereck, R.: 2012, Extreme ultraviolet variability experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of science objectives, instrument design, data products, and model developments. Solar Phys. 275, 115. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zaitsev, V.V., Stepanov, A.V.: 2008, Coronal magnetic loops. Phys. Usp. 51, 1123. DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence – SIDCRoyal Observatory of BelgiumBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL)LeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear PhysicsMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science DivisionNASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  5. 5.Physics DepartmentThe Catholic University of AmericaWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations