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Table 5 Probit estimates of the probability of reporting a distinct period of happiness: Average marginal effects (AME)

From: The Best Years of Older Europeans’ Lives

  All Men Women
AME s.e AME s.e AME s.e
Current socio-demographic characteristics
Age −0.002*** 0.001 −0.001 0.001 −0.003** 0.001
Female 0.048*** 0.008     
Has children 0.049** 0.015 0.018 0.020 0.081*** 0.019
Education (ISCED: 7 levels) 0.015** 0.003 0.017*** 0.004 0.013*** 0.004
Unemployed −0.011 0.035 0.002 0.042 −0.024 0.051
Retired 0.013 0.022 −0.018 0.025 0.030 0.027
Other inactive 0.038 0.019 0.081* 0.047 0.037** 0.019
Cohabiting with partner −0.017 0.021 −0.013 0.029 −0.019 0.020
Current illness episode 0.092*** 0.019 0.092*** 0.021 0.007 0.005
Subjective variables
Always find ways to solve problems (1 to 5) −0.002 0.007 0.004 0.012 0.009* 0.005
Always optimist about future (1 to 5) 0.009 0.007 0.007 0.010 −0.005 0.007
Current life satisfaction (0 to 10) 0.004 0.006 −0.001 0.009 0.007 0.008
Life events
Past episode of illness 0.102*** 0.010 0.108*** 0.014 0.089*** 0.018
Ever divorced 0.073** 0.030 0.061* 0.032 0.083** 0.033
Death of partner 0.075*** 0.020 0.099*** 0.030 0.067*** 0.026
Ever institutionalized 0.049 0.031 0.080 0.050 0.018 0.045
Ever unemployed −0.003 0.018 0.029* 0.017 −0.035 0.032
Ever in financial hardship 0.095*** 0.011 0.108*** 0.015 0.082*** 0.014
Ever in stress episode 0.195*** 0.018 0.171*** 0.015 0.213*** 0.024
Ever in hunger 0.020 0.021 0.009 0.025 0.028 0.033
Ever dispossessed 0.004 0.026 0.012 0.030 −0.003 0.035
Lived in war country −0.001 0.018 0.019 0.022 −0.015 0.028
Lived in absence of democracy −0.020 0.032 −0.046** 0.020 0.001 0.043
Country (ref: France)
Austria −0.363*** 0.025 −0.362*** 0.017 −0.359*** 0.031
Germany −0.375*** 0.013 −0.376*** 0.011 −0.377*** 0.017
Sweden −0.252*** 0.024 −0.256*** 0.019 −0.252*** 0.030
Netherlands −0.430*** 0.021 −0.460*** 0.012 −0.407*** 0.027
Spain −0.135*** 0.016 −0.140*** 0.009 −0.133*** 0.026
Italy −0.209*** 0.023 −0.210*** 0.015 −0.211*** 0.028
Denmark −0.384*** 0.021 −0.449*** 0.010 −0.337*** 0.030
Greece −0.262*** 0.015 −0.239*** 0.013 −0.274*** 0.022
Switzerland −0.390*** 0.022 −0.417*** 0.017 −0.363*** 0.028
Belgium −0.335*** 0.022 −0.371*** 0.014 −0.303*** 0.028
Czechia −0.167*** 0.009 −0.166*** 0.010 −0.169*** 0.015
Poland −0.294*** 0.010 −0.279*** 0.009 −0.318*** 0.018
N 10,013 4,357 5,656    
  1. Robust standard errors clustered at country level in parentheses. * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05; *** p < 0.01