This paper describes a multi-indicator latent growth mixture model built on the data collected by a large Italian university to track students’ satisfaction over time. The analysis of the data involves two steps: first, a pre-processing of data selects the items to be part of the synthetic indicator that measures students’ satisfaction; the second step then retrieves heterogeneity that allows the identification of a clustering structure with a group of university courses (outliers) which underperform in terms of students’ satisfaction over time. Regression components of the model identify courses in need of further improvement and that are prone to receiving low classifications from students. Results show that it is possible to identify a large group of didactic activities with a high satisfaction level that stays constant over time; there is also a small group of problematic didactic activities with low satisfaction that decreases over the period under analysis.
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We use course and didactic activity as synonymous. To be more precise, didactic activity is understood as the course-teacher pair.
Since we have longitudinal data for only three consecutive waves, only a linear latent trajectory may be specified.
Exploratory factor analysis on the data referring to the three academic years gave similar results; therefore, we decided to report only for the most recent academic year 2014–2015. Extracting factors with principal-components factoring gave the same solution; on the other hand, extracting the factors with methods such as iterative maximum likelihood did not provide good results as a Heywood case was encountered (Fabrigar et al. 1999). KMO index is equal to 0.956.
Three-component mixture models always perform worse than the two-component mixture model (based on BIC).
The number of credits has been excluded from the potential covariates since it is highly correlated with the number of hours.
The classification is based on the estimates given by Eq. (7) and assigned to the latent class with maximum probability (Bayes’ optimal rule). The relative entropy index, which varies between 0 (min) and 1 (max), is 0.908. Thus, we have a good level of separation of the mixture components (Ramaswamy et al. 1993).
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The authors would like to thank the editor and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, which helped us to improve the manuscript. This work was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (Grant UID/GES/00315/2013 and UID/GES/00315/2019) and by Grant BIRD162088/16 financed by the University of Padua for the project entitled “Advances in Multilevel and Longitudinal Modelling”.
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Guerra, M., Bassi, F. & Dias, J.G. A Multiple-Indicator Latent Growth Mixture Model to Track Courses with Low-Quality Teaching. Soc Indic Res 147, 361–381 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-019-02169-x
- Higher education
- Quality of didactics
- Latent growth mixture models
- Outlier detection
- Synthetic indicator
- Data science